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The Early Journals of Henry Williams

VII — January to December 1833

page 272

January to December 1833

Peace parleys — Voyage to Tauranga and Maketu — East Cape Maoris captured by Captain Black — Busby arrives — Rotorua asks for missionaries — Ploughs used at Waimate — Death of Tohitapu — Journey to Thames and Waikato — Te Waharoa — Journey to Whangaroa.

Tuesday, 1 January, 1833. Fine. Through many tender mercies are we brought to another period of time, and before we proceed, it may be well to gaze for a moment on the rugged path over which we have traversed during the last twelve months. The past year has been a season of considerable anxiety on behalf of our poor natives, and conflict with the great Adversary of our souls; but more were they who were for us than those who were against us; for the Lord of Hosts was with us, the God of Jacob was our refuge.

The year opened with great political agitation, threatening destruction to multitudes. Most of the tribes around gathered themselves together and left for Tauranga, thus disregarding our counsel, and after about 5 months vainly trying their best efforts to subdue Tauranga, they in apparent confusion returned without effecting their object—the overthrow of that people. Some few remained behind and have continued the war with loss on both sides, and are now preparing for a fresh campaign. May the Lord put His hook in their nose, and frustrate their mad design.

The various families have experienced illness in a greater or less degree, and though some were brought nigh unto the grave, yet none have departed. Surely goodness and mercy have followed us until now.

Our Missionary efforts have prospered and increased and we have the prospect of extending our borders tho the great Enemy has opposed us vigorously, and has taken up a new position in order to withstand us, but this, “Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world”, supports us under every trial and perplexity.

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Marupo came early to see us; had a good deal of conversation with him, and was thankful to learn that none of that tribe think of moving to the Southd to join the expedition. My brother arrived from Hokianga. Mr. Brown and I went over to Omata to see Mrs. Wright, hearing that Reed was in a state of intoxication, having “been keep Christmas”, and keeping all in bodily fear; glad to find all quiet. Saw Rewa there. He spoke of going to Waikato.

Wednesday, 2. Reed came over in a great hurry to say that Mrs. Wright was in a great fright owing to the rude conduct of Te Rou1; gave the man a serious talking to; he is a wild mad fellow. In the afternoon went to pay a visit to my boys at Karaka; working well.

Thursday, 3. Fine. Boys at work preparing land.

Friday, 4. Fine. Went up the Kerikeri to fetch the children. Ship Conway arrived.

Saturday, 5. Cloudy. Commenced cutting posts in the bush behind.

Sunday, 6. Fine. The Ship Sisters, Cap. Duke, arrived. No sooner was the anchor gone than Cap. and Mrs. Duke came on shore. The Captain soon informed me that Mrs. D. was very much indisposed and that he had a great desire to procure accommodation for her on shore, and that Mrs. Brown had expressed a desire that she should remain with her. To this I could say but little, as Mrs. Brown was not in the Settlement. We therefore accommodated Mrs. D. as well as we could, and consoled ourselves as well as the circumstances of the case would admit of.

Monday, 7. Strong wind through the night with rain. At daylight the wind ceased. Left for the Kerikeri. We were overtaken with much rain but arrived in good time. Commenced business at 3 o'clock. In the evening prayer meeting.

Tuesday, 8. Cloudy, with strong wind from South; cold. Fires very comfortable tho in the middle of summer. All day engaged in parish business.

Wednesday, 9. Entered upon the question of a visit to the Southd. with aview to examine for a future Station, which with other business drawing stores &c. occupied us until 3 o'clock, when we adjourned to Wednesday next, being all tired. Returned home by dusk, all well. Mrs. Duke obtained accommodation at Cap. Clendon's. A man named Field, who had been engaged to make some furniture, nearly drowned; a poor miserable wretch, a drunken professor of religion.

Friday, 11. Fine. Went over to Kororarika; saw Hakiro, who page 274 was very polite, and called everyone within reach to draw near; all expressed themselves well. Passed on to Rewa, who was repairing a fishing net; all left their employment and came and entered into conversation, but Rewa evidently shewed that he had no part in the matter. He observed that the Natives would go to Tauranga and overcome that people, little regarding that the battle is not to the strong, nor the race to the swift. I told him our regard for all was very great, that we were much concerned to observe their indifference to the message of our God to them. In the afternoon a Brig arrived from Sydney, a few letters and registers. In the eveng. met several of our natives in conference.

Saturday, 12. My brother returned from Hokianga.

Sunday, 13. After service went to Otuihu. Saw Hihi. Several Europeans came and entered into conversation. Titore2 landed at Kororarika.

Monday, 14. My brother and I went to Kororarika to learn the state of general feeling. Saw Rewa first; he told us that the Napuhi would not go to Tauranga; this we were glad to hear but desired to have it confirmed. Passed on to Tareha and Titore. The latter appeared sullen for some time, but afterwards recovered himself; he seemed to assume great importance.

Tuesday, 15. Gale through the night; much rain. In the afternoon the weather cleared up. Took my family to the Kerikeri; arrived at 10 o'clock.

Wednesday, 16. At committee all day upon the question of a mission to the Southd.

Thursday, 17. Fine. Engaged all the forenoon in making out indent. At 4 left for the Waimate. Mr. Clarke having brought the cart for Mrs. W. and the children, besides four horses for the remainder of the party. Everyone enjoyed the ride, which was a very delightful change. It was dusk before we arrived at our quarters, where we found Mrs. Clarke much better than we expected. Everything was very comfortable, and plenty of room for the children to run about.

Friday, 18. Heavy rain in the morng., which cleared off in the afternoon. A number of the Rarawa in the Settlement on their way to Kororarika. We had a long conversation with them upon the importance of turning from these lying vanities unto the one true and living God. We were in hopes that they might yet be deterred from their desire to accompany Titore.

Saturday, 19. Fine morning. Mr. Clarke conducted Mrs. W., page 275 Miss Coldham and myself, to the Lake of Maupere.3 It is a very grand object in the centre of the Island and beautifully wooded. We here remained for a considerable time admiring the scenery around and examining an old fortification on a promontory which extended some distance into the lake. No one was residing here at this time.

Sunday, 20. Fine. After morning service I went to the Kerikeri for the purpose of publishing the bans of marriage between Mr. Preece and Miss Williams for the last time. I found the ride exceedingly hot. The service was late. A large body of the Rarawa at the settlement but none attended the eveng. service. I felt too fatigued to go over to see them. Titore was with them.

Monday, 21. The natives left at sunrise. After breakfast Mr. Baker and I went down to Kororarika. Everybody was busy attending to the wants of the newly arrived visitors. Titore spoke very well but I have my doubts of him. We were glad to learn that none of the Ngapuhi were likely to join the expedition. No speeches took place, consequently we left early and passed over to Paihia.

Tuesday, 22. Observed a number of canoes standing in from the Northd. which we concluded to be a party of the Rarawa. Mr. Baker and I went over to Kororarika and met them on landing. There were about 100 men, of whom Te Morenga appeared to be the Chief : we addressed a few words to him, but they were not according to his views; he was for war. We passed up to the Kerikeri, greatly lamenting the dominion which Satan held over these poor people.

Wednesday, 23. Fine. Mrs. Williams and family returned from the Waimate, having much refreshed themselves by their visit. The change of scene was very great to them, not having removed from the seaside for many years.

Thursday, 24. Fine. Felt very unwell, and could not enjoy the examination of the school, which took place this morng. In the eveng felt much better. Heavy rain. Mr. Preece arrived.

Friday, 25. The Wedding!!! At break of day the Natives surrounded Mr. Baker's house (where was the bride elect) making a vociferous noise, several making speeches together, the purport of which was, that the lady should not depart from the settlement unless a very great fee was paid down, worthy of her great excellencies. The boys after amusing themselves at the expense of the happy pair for some considerable time, obtained their fee, which was a pair of blankets for the purpose of buying pigs, for a feast in honour of the great occasion. Mr. Brown performed the ceremony page 276 which took place at 11 o'clock. After partaking of a cold collation, the Bride and Bridegroom set off for the Waimate, and we for Paihia, where we arrived about 4 o'clock, and met Captain and Mrs. Duke, the latter of whom exhibited an effective scene to move the sympathy of our good wives to receive her into the settlement under their protection, as she would long stand in need of a Doctor and Nurse; but the prospect being too alarming to the economy of our arrangements and proceedings, it was declined, but not acceded to without considerable efforts. The good lady was recommended to Mrs. Clendon, Mrs. Wright or to some other of the sisterhood dwelling in our neighbourhood. This interview had nearly brought on a serious illness with Mrs. Brown, on whose friendship the good Captain and his lady had evidently laid some claim from the circumstance of an uncle having seen a relative of Mrs. B. in England.

Saturday, 26. Fine. In the Eveng. an alarm was given that the Rarawa were coming in the morng. in order to upset the settlement in consequence of an expression said to have proceeded from one of my boys, stating that the Head of Papahia4, the Chief of the party at Kororarika, should be smashed by Nateawa on his arrival at Tauranga. We enquired into the case, when there did not appear the slightest foundation for the report.

Sunday, 27. Fine. In the afternoon I went to Kororarika to see the natives there, and to ascertain the state of their minds. On landing Titore came down to the nose of the boat, and began to play at Draughts and calling on the name of Jesus Christ to strike off his hands. I spoke to him, but he was determined to be angry. I therefore passed on and went to Tareha. He was unusually civil. Before I left the beach I called on Titore as I was passing, and required some explanation of his conduct. He told me we were a wicked people and delighted in using bad and irritating language and repeating the reports he had heard. I desired him to call his evidence, which he endeavoured to do but could not produce any except hearsay evidence. It was at length traced to an old woman whom no one knew anything of and consequently the indictment was quashed. Titore said it was the first time we had had any quarrel, and we must make peace, which I was glad to do on account of these poor people. I walked on to see the Rarawa, but they were too busy in preparing Kia turia te Ngarahau (to have page 277 their dance and speeches) previous to their movement towards Tauranga. They appeared to partake more than usual of the spirit of their father the Devil, and to exult in thus violating the Ra tapu. All was soon confusion and we were glad to escape to our more peaceful region.

Monday, 28. Fine. The Rarawa left the Bay this morning after committing some depredations upon the natives; they are an uncouth set of fellows and are thus considered by those around. Went to Te Puna to see Mr. Shepherd to request him to join our expedition to the Southd.

Tuesday, 29. Fine. Cap. Clendon arrived from the Colony; a few letters. Pango, the chief from Rotorua, who accompanied Titore from thence, came over to see us. We had a long conversation with him upon missionary subjects; he appeared to wish for some of us to live among his people, which certainly would be highly important. This man is related to several persons in the Settlement, and is an old acquaintance of ours, as we saved his head about six years since when closely pursued by the Ngapuhi, at the time that Hongi received his wound at Wangaroa, as he was charged with having makutud Hongi upon that occasion, which caused his wound. He fled to us for safety, when we obtained a passage for him on board a vessel which conveyed him to his place.

Wednesday, 30. Mr. White arrived from Hokianga.

Thursday, 31. Fine. Engaged all day with Dr. Ross5 a physician who had come down from Port Jackson for the benefit of his health, with Mrs. Ross, under the expectation of residing here. Walked with him to Waitangi to show him that part of the country, with which he was very much pleased, and proposed to purchase a spot there. Old Hiamoe and several others came to have some conversation about our projected voyage to Tauranga; they proposed that some of their party should go with us; did not give a definite answer.

Friday, 1 February. Nene6, Kekehau7 and others came into the settlement; their conversation upon the general topic, the expedition to Tauranga; they appeared in doubts whether to go or not. I spent much time with them, talking over state affairs. In the afternoon heavy rain. Gale from North.

Saturday, 2. We hear that it is concluded that the Ngapuhi are page 278 not going, and we hope but few of the Rarawa. Titore may perhaps have yet to learn wisdom, as he has rejected all we have had to say to him; he appears flushed with a partial victory and expresses a desire that no one may go with him. His language to us is favourable.

Sunday, 3. Fine. A goodly number of Natives at service. Chapel very full. In the afternoon a large congregation of Europeans. Much cast down on account of the Natives at Kororarika. Tareha in a great rage today at Rawiri, he came toward him when at Kororarika roaring like an infuriated bull, in consequence of some of the answers in one of the Catchisms being opposed to his views of strict propriety, in as much as all men, without distinction of rank are brought under condemnation, who believe not in the name of the Son of God. This doctrine as observed may do for Slaves and Europeans but not for a free and noble people like the Ngapuhi, therefore they will not receive it. Heard that Taeopa8, a small cutter, (which had formerly belonged to the natives, but now it appeared had been purchased by a man of the name of Poyner) had been seized last evening by Titore and his people, and that some of the europeans had been ill used. The reason assigned was that she had not been fully paid for, that she was tapud in consequence of the heads she had brought from the Southd. and that they required her to convey their ammunition and provision to Maketu. As very gross imposition had been practised upon the natives respecting their purchase of this vessel, we could not express that disapprobation we should have done under any other circumstance.

Monday, 4. Rain all day. Wind from E.N.E. Sailed over to Kororarika to see Titore and Tarea, respecting our going up to the Southd. Titore was very civil; he related the particulars of the seizure of the Cutter and claimed her on behalf of the Natives as she had never been sold by them. It was concluded that we should join them at Maketu. Titore mentioned that the Capn. of the Brig which is going to convey him to Maketu with the bulk of their baggage and provision, was very urgent with them to ship their things yesterday, but that they would not comply with his desires, as it was the Ra tapu. Thus we find Heathens preaching to a Christian, calling his attention to the command of Heaven, “Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy”. The reply of this Christian was, that they were not missionaries and did not regard these things. Titore gave me a Mere as a sign of peace being established between us.

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Tuesday, 5. Titore sailed this morng.9 in the Port Jackson Brig with 1000 baskets of potatoes, arms, stores, &c., to be used against Nateawa, the people of Tauranga. Mr. Chapman arrived ready for a departure, having taken leave of home. Much conversation in the eveng. determining the course of our proceedings.

Wednesday, 6. Fine. Mr. Chapman and I went over to Kororarika to see Tareha, as some objections had been raised to our going to the Southd., that our movements would frustrate their plans. This is most certainly our desire and aim and constant prayer, that they may be delivered from those chains of darkness with which they have been so long bound, and become the sons and daughters of the Lord Almighty, through Jesus Christ their Redeemer, that this dark corner of the Earth, which has been for centuries full of the habitations of cruelty, may yet rejoice as the garden of the Lord. We found Tareha asleep and could not rouse him up. At length he came out of his den, smiled and looked gracious and entered upon the news of the day. He had no objection to offer to our going forward, but spoke of our proceeding in the morning. We passed on to Wai and the remainder of his party. They were all very civil and made many enquiries and expressed a wish that we should keep in company. Returned to Paihia and concluded my preparations for a movement in the morning.

Thursday, 7. This present visit to the Southd. has occupied much thought and conversation and been the subject of many prayers that we may obtain divine guidance. With the Thames we have had no communication except a partial visit last year, tho many invitations have been held out by the Chiefs visiting the Bay of Islands. Our plans were therefore arranged to go first to Haurake and to pass on to Waikato, but owing to the opposition shown by Tarea and other Chiefs to our going thither, lest messengers proceed from thence to Tauranga, we determined to change our route and go direct to Maketu, see the contending parties and endeavour if possible to moderate their feelings, at least to see them and shew them how contrary are their proceedings to the peaceful spirit of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. If on our return we can effect a call in the Thames, we shall gladly commence an acquaintance in this quarter.

The morning was very fine and the bay perfectly smooth with a light air from S.S.W. Much bustle in placing the baggage in the boats, which had been collected with much care, both for quality and compactness of stowage and convenience, as we contemplated page 280 an absence of many weeks, and should have to abide in tents during the period. All was prepared and ready for departure by 8 o'clock, and we took leave at 9; the natives in the settlement saluting us with their guns. Mr. Chapman was in his own boat, and the Karere in company for the purpose of taking potatoes for the boys, and of rendering assistance if needed. Taeapo and an American ship standing out of the Bay. Our sailing was very pleasant, and at noon we rounded Cape Brett. Wind shifted to the seabreeze. At 2 observed a strange sail to the Northd., could not make her out. Much admired the action of our boat; she sailed with much elegance, and possessed great accommodation. At 6 we landed at Wangaruru, and pitched our tent in a quiet spot among the bushes. Discovered a place where a human head had but recently been prepared. Obliged to retire early to bed owing to a severe headache from long abstinence, not having taken any food, and exposed to a burning sun.

Friday, 8. Woke several times in consequence of fleas, the occupants of the land. Found myself much better for a rest, moved on at daylight with a pleasant breeze. Karere a few miles distant. At 9 o'clock pulled into Wananaki, a fine broad river for small vessels. We here breakfasted; coffee excellent. At 1 we entered Tutukaka, having left Mr. Chapman far behind. Took some ovsters, which we found in great abundance, and pulled on to Taiharuru. As we approached, the wind suddenly shifted to South and blew strong. With difficulty we found an entrance, as the sea was breaking heavily on the rocks. We passed in safely and obtained snug quarters within a long chain of rocks which broke off the sea and formed a good shelter for canoes and boats.

Saturday, 9. Fine morning. We were delaved 2 hours owing to the tide being out; not sufficient water for the boats; took breakfast and pulled out. A Brig standing to the Northd., Taeopo to leeward; passed on with a fine breeze to Te Wara, the outer head of Wangari. The wind increasing we pulled in with great difficulty into the Harbour. We were much disappointed at not finding the Karere here but more so at learning that there were no natives up the river10, all having been dispersed some time since by a party from Waikato. A large fire was observed to the Southd., supposed to be the Rarawa. No inhabitants hitherto seen; all desolation; wind very strong during the remainder of the day; everyone felt weary from the heat of the weather, and the long and heavy pull into the page 281 harbour. We occupied the place we did last year, but no one here but ourselves.

Sunday, 10. Much rain in the night but fine morning. No signs of living creatures near us. Determined to proceed up the river to see for ourselves if there was no one in the neighbourhood with whom we could communicate upon the nature of eternal things. We accordingly took advantage of the flood tide, but to no purpose. We saw the wreck of an Englishman's house, but no creature. When last here there was a large party at the Pa and several Europeans in various places around, but all are gone, shewing the distressing effects of war. Landed our Messenger for Paihia and returned to our quarters. This Sunday appears a Blank; everyone feeling out of order. In the evening held service with our boys.

Monday, 11. At 3.30 woke the boys to proceed on. Clouds flying fast over the moon, tho but little wind with us; dark, hazy morning. We had an agreeable sail as far as Mangawai by 9 o'clock. From appearances the Rarawa must have left in the night, as their feet marks were not washed out in the sand. Had a comfortable breakfast, but the wind was so much increased that we were glad to put back after getting under weigh. The boys employed themselves in fishing. At 2 o'clock put out under close reefed sails and passed along very comfortably, keeping close to the shore. At 3.30 obs'd fires at Wakatuwenua, and by 5 landed amongst the Rarawa, and was glad to find Rawiri among them; they were all very kind. I had a long conversation with them, and we afterwards assembled all to prayers, previous to our leaving them to pull round to the Karere, which was at Omaha our old and favourite spot. It was near 8 o'clock before we arrived at our quarters, where we immediately kindled fires amongst the trees, pitched our tents, and soon found ourselves at home; took supper, had prayers, and went to bed, weary.

Tuesday, 12. Fine night. No one disposed to rise early, being very tired from yesterdays movements. Wind strong from Westd.; fleas very numerous; learnt that the Rarawa had passed on to Hauturu (the little Barrier) in the night. As the distance across the Thames to Cape Colvel is great and the sea generally considerable, we concluded to remain quiet and arrange our things. Toward evening as the wind had much abated and the weather clear, we thought it well to take the advantage and put across. We moved off at sunset in company with Karere. After about two hours the wind began to muffle, which caused a good deal of sea for a boat, but we passed on surprisingly well, the boys admiring the abilities of our frail bark.

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Wednesday, 13. Fresh breezes. By 1 we came into smooth water. Shortened sail and ran close in shore, pulled round to Port Charles, and came to an anchor till daylight, not wishing to land as the boys were somewhat apprehensive of Parekeawiowio11, a noted character, Lord of this part of the land, and one who has killed many a traveller while reposing within his dominions. At daybreak we landed in a quiet bay, where the boys immediately commenced to explore the neighbourhood for Karakas, and some to get shell fish. Our breakfast was very refreshing, and by the aid of a good wash and a good fire we were soon able to continue our voyage after a short examination as to the nature of this Port as laid down on the chart. We were much interested with all we saw here as it was near this place we so narrowly escaped shipwreck last year. Examined the bay or inlet called Port Charles, which is incapable of offering any shelter even for the Karere. The sea breeze came suddenly on and for some time it appeared doubtful whether the little vessel would work out. Passed on to Ahuahu, the Northern of the Mercury islands where we found refuge in the Active last year. Very snug quarters among the bushes, and Karere laying in the River. The boys dispersed to reconnoitre. Some of them returned loaded with dried shark apparently left behind in flight, a fine prize for the boys. As we came out of Port Charles took particular notice of the rocks and coast which had well nigh marked our tomb on the 8th of Apl. last, and I consider that the Active could not have been more than half cable length from the shore when so mercifully preserved. Assembled our boys at dusk to prayers and retired to rest. Very weary.

Thursday, 14. Cloudy, wind W.N.W. One week from home this morning and but one interview with any natives and only one day's sail from Tauranga. Yet we cannot proceed until the Rarawa pass on, unless we go direct to Maketu. A handsome curry and peach pudding for dinner. Our fishing party took a considerable number. Some of the boys cutting firewood, there not being any at Maketu.

Friday, 15. Felt very unwell. Boys getting fern root in order to spare our stock of provision, as we must not expect to purchase any. Many human bones12 lay scattered upon the surface of the ground, the remains of some of their horrid repasts. Saw no appearance of the fires of the Rarawa. Prospect of rain, prepared accordingly.

Saturday, 16. Fine. Determined to remain quiet until Monday page 283 and proceed on. Continued unwell. Some of the boys brought in dried shark. Prepared for departure on Monday.

Sunday, 17. Cloudy. Wind from N.W. Continued unwell. Held a very comfortable service with the boys after breakfast. Much out of sorts during the remainder of the day,

Monday, 18. Wind and Rain with lightning; could not move from our quarters. The boys foraging for food, shellfish, fern root, &c., &c. In the eveng. fine; prepared for a move in the morng.

Tuesday, 19. At daylight, dark cloudy weather, light airs from the West, and the scud flying rapidly. Left our retreat and moved out. Soon found a wind and sea; passed most rapidly along. A little after 7 o'clock entered Mercury bay; landed on a quiet beach to breakfast; a fine stream of water falling from a cliff close to us, and the trees overhanging us. Having concluded our repast we sang a hymn with the boys, and offered up our Morning sacrifice to the Lord of Heaven and Earth. I could not but reflect while preparation was making for our proceeding, that of the multitudes who have passed over the very stones on which we were sitting, in their expedition to and from the war, none had been found to give praise to the Lord : that this was in all probability the first time since the Creation that any had approached the Throne of Grace in this part of the world. It was past 8 before we loosed from this quiet spot to engage a firy breeze and foaming sea which was running at this time for the wind was very strong. It was doubtful for some time whether we could continue our course, but by going under easy sail we went comfortably, observing the inlets and islands close to the shore. About 2 o'clock entered Tairua, a river into which small vessels may go, tho several banks and shoals inside. No signs of any inhabitant, no smoke to be seen in the distance. The country bore the general character of New Zealand scenery, a succession of hill and dale, it was however a picturesque place. The high land was covered with timber and there appeared many rich tracts of land but no hand to cultivate. Took a hasty survey of the river while the boys were getting shell fish and karaka. Had dinner and crossed over to Wakahau, where the Karere was at anchor. Drew the boats on shore as the weather seemed threatening. Before we could complete our tents rain commenced and continued. We felt thankful for the shelter afforded. Our run was very considerable this day.

Wednesday, 20. Rain more or less through the night, my tent perfectly tight by the assistance of some painted cloths. At daylight the weather cleared off a little, but as the wind was not fair, we kept our place. Boys catching eels and shell fish, digging fern root. page 284 In the evening, weather more favourable, prepared for a move in the morning.

Thursday, 21. Quiet night. At daylight cloudy, but little wind from S.S.W. Rawiri, Hamu13, and her dog, joined us in the boats. Weather doubtful. A pleasant sail to Wangamata. When at the entrance the wind sprang up from the S.E., and increased through the day. Appearance of natives having been recently here from the interior, as a number of sheds were standing by the river side. The boys brought two kittens from them, which Hamu took charge of as tho they were children. Every one collecting food. In the evening wind increased to a gale with rain. Under considerable apprehension about Karere, as the wind appeared from the only point to which she could be exposed. Tho it was blowing a severe gale outside with heavy rain, yet our encampment was so very snug and quiet that we were scarcely put to any inconvenience, being protected by bushes and trees. Rawiri related former deeds of cruelty and murder practised in this river but he was now upon a different errand, that of speaking peace through Jesus Christ.

Friday, 22. Dreary stormy night, but our tents did not give way, nor did the rain penetrate, nor is our health in any wise affected by the damp around. The sea roars with awful majesty at the entrance of the river being one perpetual foam. Our situation begins to be tedious and wearisome. It is now more than a fortnight since we left our homes, and we have seen no one except the Rarawa at one interval and we cannot proceed until the sea is smooth, but it is the Lord's work in which we are engaged, it is His honour we seek. and we would desire to commit ourselves to Him. Heavy rain.

Saturday, 23. Wind died away in the night; every appearance of fine weather in which the birds seem to rejoice, their melody fills the surrounding woods and bushes. We felt happy in being able to put out our heads and look abroad. The boys departed early to the neighbouring woods in quest of food, and others to look after Karere, to observe if any signal of distress were shewn. At noon wind tho light still from the sea. The mosquitos and namus exceedingly troublesome, could not escape from them.

Sunday, 24. Clear morng. sea smooth, no signs of life, no sound of the Church going bell. How melancholy the reflection, once these hills and vallies were peopled though with savage hordes, but of late years they have been hunted as the deer until few remain, and they driven into the interior; but surely this work of destruction page 285 shall cease and this wilderness shall rejoice and blossom as the rose, and these hills resound with songs of praise to God and the Lamb.

After breakfast assembled our little congregation under the shadow of the wide spreading Pohutukaua, and held service; it was sweet and refreshing to know that we with all the Israel of God, were engaged in the service and enjoying the presence of our common Father and Friend, tho absent in body still present in spirit with them; these are the privileges of the Christian:

Where two or three with sweet accord
Obedient to their Sovereign Lord,
Meet to recount his acts of grace,
And offer solemn praise and prayer—
There, says the Saviour, will I be,
Amid this little company,
To them unveil my smiling face,
And shed my glories round the place.

At sunset the sky became overcast, and the breeze sprung up from the S.E. with rain, which seemed to indicate a protracted stay in this quarter. At first the thought was painful but we were enabled to leave all to the great Disposer of events, and retired to rest under a sense of our infinite obligation to him for his unspeakable mercies to us.

Monday, 25. A quiet night and clear morning, but the surf was roaring at the entrance. Took breakfast, struck our encampment, and pulled out to take a view of the sea, which we found very considerable, and heavy swell. The breeze springing up from the Eastd. we were obliged to return to our old quarters, and were most severely beset with namus; they were ravenous and found their way through every covering; we were obliged to bind up our hands and feet on account of them, but could not effectually keep clear of them. At sunset clear sky. The boys returned from foraging, they brought a good quantity of fern root.

Tuesday, 26. Fine morning. I intended to move at break of day but the boys were apprehensive of a Southerly wind; delayed till 9 o'clock when we pulled out in quest of a wind. A breeze sprung up at East, which shifted in the course of the day to North. Passed on at an agreeable rate to Karewa. Mr. Chapman out of sight. The boys landed and caught a number of young birds and found some potatoes, which afforded them a good supper. Entered Tauranga by 9 o'clock, landed under the Great Hill, “Maunga nui.” Kindled fires and cooked our supper which we all stood much in need of having taken nothing. Rolled ourselves up in blankets, and laid page 286 down on the ground. Not wishing to be seen we were obliged to keep close, lest the Ngapuhi should be displeased at our holding intercourse with the enemy before seeing them. Felt thankful for mercies received and for the favourable wind through the day and that it did not favour us yesterday, as the sea was very uncomfortable from the late gale. Our distance run today about 40 miles.

Wednesday, 27. Fine night. Slept well; not disturbed by any intruders. At break of day all were in the boats and on the move. As we passed out of the harbour several guns were discharged at Maungatapu, most probably at having gained sight of us. We passed along with a gentle breeze, about 3/4 of a mile from the beach. Several of Nateawa on shore gazing at us not knowing what to make of us whether friend or foe. One canoe fishing of the Pa pulled out of our way. We waved to them but they would not trust us. When abreast of the Tumu14 a great gun was fired. The fence appeared of a temporary nature, and the canoes lay carelessly about. As we drew near to Maketu we observed the flag hoisted half mast high, and soon learnt that 10 persons had yesterday been killed by the opposite party on the road to Rotorua. We were received very graciously by all on shore, all turned out to meet us, and soon gave us the news of the day. Had some interesting conversations with the leading persons, and from what I can discern, the Ngapuhi would be glad to return. It was however proposed to remain quiet until the natives shall be assembled, and then to have a general enquiry as to what shall be done, whether peace or war. The people appear far better disposed than I could have expected, and I sincerely hope that something may be accomplished. There is much pleading for Missionaries to be dispersed among them to preserve peace. At noon took breakfast on flying fish and coffee; the boys occupied in pitching the tents, putting a fence around them to keep off intruders &c., &c. Between 5 and 6 we assembled the natives for prayers. They were not quite so quiet as formerly, but it was quite a relief to speak to them upon things relating to their peace, The natives in the Pa chattering till a late hour.

Thursday, 28. A comfortable night, free from fleas. We had been very apprehensive of being devoured alive by them owing to the number of natives around. Two old ladies slept at my tent door as my guard. At daylight our boys and a number of the natives of page 287 the place, repeating the catechism, to the apparent admiration of all. A fine Kahawai sent for our breakfast. Number of spectators during the day. Long conversation with several chiefs respecting war; general expression of hope for peace, and desire for some of us to come amongst them; many insisted on Mr. Chapman's remaining. Long dispute respecting superstitions of the New Zealanders; much wonder expressed at what I said to them respecting the state of our fore fathers, and the similarity between the two people. The doctrine of the resurrection of the body also gained their serious attention, tho they observed that it was a hard saying, who could believe it. Pita's misconduct has caused much evil. This man and his wife were baptised about 4 years since, and accompanied Mr. Chapman and myself in our first visit to this neighbourhood. We had pleasing expectations of him then, tho not so much so of his wife, but he appears altogether to have fallen away; yet often have I rejoiced to hear him engage in prayer and address his countrymen, as he far exceeded in ability our old friend Rawiri, who is more slow and somewhat heavy, yet very sincere. Pita endured for a while, and the natives paid much respect to him.

In the afternoon we walked through the Pa, a dirty filthy place, no order or plan in the arrangement of the works, everything in a careless state. A prodigious quantity of fish caught of all kinds; procured a few for the boys. Examined the entrance to the river, nearly dry at low water, and exposed to the northerly wind which throws in a heavy sea. We had a pleasing conversation with Titore, &c., &c. They are evidently desirous for peace, but did not wish us to move to the Pa at present, but wait the arrival of the Rarawa.

Three weeks today since we left home but I trust we are engaged in important duty and that the Lord will bless and protect our partners and families in our absence. These people are in a sad destitute state, and need all we can do for them that they may be delivered from the cruel dominion of Satan. I fear the dilatory movements of the natives will materially clash with our desires, but all are extremely kind. After we had retired to rest many guns fired and much talking in the Pa.

Friday, 1 March. Fine morning. Boys out to get fern root. Titore came to make a call. Intelligence of several having been killed to the Southd. by a distant people. A party just arrived from the interior, came and sat up for two hours in close conversation. In the afternoon a fresh party came who found me reading; they desired me to put down my book and talk with them, which request I of course immediately complied with. They observed that I spoke page 288 many strange things, for my subject was Jesus and the resurrection. They were a good deal interested and expressed a desire that we should remain with them and they would work for us and plant potatoes, &c., for us; for how could they believe in Him of whom they have never heard. They said they desired to leave off war, but were afraid of other parties, who would harrass them, as they had suffered most. My soul grieved within me for I deeply felt their state. At sunset a blanket belonging to one of my boys was missed, of course stolen. Old Korokai made a great noise, and set all in commotion. Every enquiry made, but to no purpose. Was obliged to send him to retire to rest for the whole place appeared to be up in arms; great confusion for some time, at length it gradually subsided, like the expiring of a great fire, until all was silent, which prevailed for some time, when our attention was awakened by numbers of groups chanting a certain composition of their own, respecting our last visit to Rotorua. We were a great deal amused with it.

Saturday, 2. Much wind and rain during the night; at daylight wind shifted; clear day. The boys repairing our fence round the tents to fortify against any gales we may experience here as we may probably have to remain some little time. About 40 persons set off this morning from the Pa towards the Tumu, the Pa of Nateawa, to give challenge in consequence of the persons killed on Tuesday; a few shots were exchanged but with every feeling of respect. But very few persons came near us this morng. owing to the scolding of Korokai last eveng. In the afternoon they gathered round and we had much conversation with them. A good number at evening prayer. In the evening the old chief Korokai15 was sitting with a few others talking with us. I considered it a good opportunity to give him a blanket for his kindness to us on our former visit. I brought one out and spread it over him. The poor old man quite jumped with astonishment and was much delighted; truly he could appreciate the value of a present of this nature, yet our words upon spiritual things appear little better than idle tales. He listens with indifference to the intelligence of peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, and of eternal rest to believers beyond the grave. — Orders given this morning to prepare for the morrow as it was the Ra tapu, when no one was to move to fish or for any other purpose. In the evening great noise in the Pa respecting a pig which had been killed yesterday.

Sunday, 3. Fine morning. The investigation of the Pig's sudden dissolution renewed which appeared to occupy every attention; a page 289 great noise. The natives came out about 9 o'clock, and assembled round us to attend service; a goodly company tho not all. We were glad to see Titore amongst the number and others of his party, as it was more than we had expected from the strong opposition he has shewn at home. Their attention was good. When all was concluded I joined Titore &c. who is the principal person here, and had a long conversation with him. He observed that my speech or sermon was good. Poor fellow, it is a great thing for him to express any mark of approbation on such subjects. Before he left us, he mentioned that he expected to go in the morning to meet the Rarawa, and that we must not go over to the Enemy in his absence, that we must be courageous and sit quietly for few days until all were assembled. One old chief covered with wounds introduced himself; he appeared a restless being, and spoke of nothing but obtaining satisfaction for persons who had been killed. It does not enter into their theory of making peace unless they receive an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, and thus their perpetual wars. We should have been glad to have gone today to the Tumu, the Pa of Natemaru16, but must obey orders. In the afternoon a messenger from Rotorua, among other news, that Te Rauparaha, the Chief of Entry Island, had crossed over to the Southern Island17, carrying destruction. How dreadful this continual bloodshed; when indeed shall the word of the Lord be fulfilled, when the sword shall be beaten into ploughshares, and the spears into pruning hooks, when nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. What a field of labour lies open before us, and who shall see the end thereof. I have been much encouraged by the observations of this people respecting Missionaries and their desire for their appearance here to check the evil which abounds. All seem sensible of the advantage of our being with them, and contrast our proceedings with those Europeans who seek not them but theirs. A good number attended our evening service, after which several chiefs spoke in turn. One old chief mentioned his interview with his relatives long since dead who spoke of the excellence of the Po. We continued our conversation till dusk. Rawiri mentioned that we should return tomorrow if not allowed to proceed to Nateawa. Several became uneasy, and enquiries in the course of the evening as to the truth of this, and requested us to remain quietly until the page 290 Chiefs should assemble and the Rarawa arrive. As we had no intention of moving they appeared satisfied.

Monday, 4. A quiet night, but several fleas in the neighbourhood. Offers of some fish taken yesterday, but declined. While we were at dinner, my boy Patu was announced on the opposite side of the river. He was immediately surrounded by these natives, who appeared disposed to treat him roughly as coming from and belonging to the enemy, tho he had lived for four years past with me. The poor boy was relieved of his blanket before we could send our lads to his assistance; it was recovered after some difficulty. The boy came from the Karere which was at anchor at Waikorire. No particular news, except that Kiaroa sent his kind regards and desired to see us.

Tuesday, 5. Fine night. Taepo the vessel in possession of Ngapuhi sailed this morning in quest of the Rarawa. Several arrivals through the day from Rotorua and Wakatane. A terrible howling most of the day, set up by the women, who are always the chief performers in these ceremonies. This is frequently accompanied by the cutting of their faces and arms, to indicate their great affection for their newly arrived friends, while the men are engaged in relating the transactions of the day, or the scenes through which they have passed since last they met; this is delivered with great spirit and animation. The Chief of the party from Wakatane came to see us and brought a basket of potatoes, which in this season is no inconsiderable present, as provision of this kind has been consumed long since by the assembled multitude, who are far removed from their cultivations, and are obliged to subsist on fish and fern root. The old man appeared glad to see us, and gave us an invitation to go and see him at his place, which we think of doing after the Karere arrives. He talked at a great rate, and said he would wait and accompany us. The noise of the women in the Pa every evening quite unbearable, hakaing and dancing, like so many infernals; they require much renovating even in a temporal point of view, their shrieks and yells are truly dismal.

Appearance of a Gale from the East.

Wednesday, 6. Much rain through the night but the wind died away. Stewed snipe and tea for breakfast. Several strangers through the day. Pango arrived from Rotorua. He came and paid his respects. He appeared quite in another character from what he was when amongst the Ngapuhi. Then he was in fear for his head, tho a visitor amongst them, but here he felt himself at home. He jumped about like a kitten and spoke of our remaining with him. In the evening we had a good assemblage.

Thursday, 7. Wind N.E. Appearance of a Gale. News that 400 page 291 men had departed to lay wait for the Nateawa. We enquired into the truth of this account, which being confirmed, we sent for some of the leading men, to whom we observed that we must leave them as soon as the weather should clear up, as they appeared determined to follow their own inclinations. This led to much conversation, and a visit from all the officers of State. There was also a second counsel in the Pa, to which I was introduced. Some urged the necessity of having one or two days good fighting as a kind of finishing stroke, and settling of all differences. Can there be any reasoning more Satanic? I told them that if there should be any fighting on the part of these people while we were amongst them, we should leave them immediately. They promised there should be none, and strongly urged the necessity of our remaining until Titore should return. Poor creatures, they are as kind as they are capable, but in a sad state of ignorance and superstition, living in a careless filthy state scarcely out of gunshot of their enemy.

Friday, 8. Heavy rain through the night. Tormented with fleas. At daylight wind shifted to the westward; appearance of fine weather. A party of Nateawa shewed themselves to invite a skirmish with these people, which was soon accepted. They crossed the river, but each observed a respectful distance. They fired a few shots and retired to their respective places. While observing their movements I learnt that when Warepapa18 a chief of Ngapuhi was killed in a late engagement here, that Titore's wife took a rope and gave it to his widow and told her to go and hang herself, which she accordingly did; retiring unattended to a Wahitapu among some bushes, she was found a few hours afterwards quite dead. These circumstances were not uncommon some years since, but lately of rare occurrence, and would not in all probability have taken place in this instance, but as a display of courage before the natives of Rotorua. It was a practice formerly to kill some slaves on the death of a chief, but this has gradually ceased in the neighbourhood of the Bay of Islands and Hokianga. A good deal of uneasiness expressed on account of the Karere not making her appearance from Tauranga. Apprehensive that the Nateawa had detained her. Began to be weary of our protracted stay without even commencing negotiations. Threw out some hints that we should go to the Tumu, but were told not as the establishment of peace depended upon us.

Saturday, 9. Fine morning. More fleas through the night notwithstanding all precautions. Night unusually cold. Went to see Waihihi, a river a short distance to the Southd. Too shallow for page 292 small vessels, but important for boats, &c. Ground in the neighbourhood fair for cultivation, and flax swamp extending many miles to the Southd. On our return were much relieved by the sight of the Karere coming out of Tauranga. As the tide did not answer till 9 o'clock we did not venture to bring her in. The bar was smooth.

Sunday, 10. Fine morning. Pulled out in the two boats to tow in our little vessel. When on the bar several rollers tossed up their heads, but she came in without striking. Took her to an anchorage, where she lay very comfortably, tho in a small space as the river is full of banks and shoals. At 10 o'clock assembled the natives to service; more attentive than last Sunday. Spoke of the invitations of the Gospel, and compared their state with that of believers. Felt thankful in being able to speak to these people of the things which relate to their eternal peace. Conversation afterwards upon the present position of affairs, the unhappy consequences of war, involving them in perpetual confusion, and restraining them from hearing and receiving the truths of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Monday, 11. Fine. Natives as usual in close attendance and in general conversation most part of the day. In the afternoon several idle youths crossed over to Nateawa to offer them battle, a few shots exchanged. Towards sunset the parties increased, when one person was brought back dead. Immediately all was confusion and noise, firing guns wailing and howling in a horrid degree. This last part belonged to the women, who arranged themselves before the corpse, throwing themselves into every attitude, and filling the air with their lamentations, cutting themselves until the blood gushed out, besmearing their faces and arms, a hideous form; and she was deemed the most effectual performer, who exhibited the largest web of snivel and filth issuing from the nose and hanging pendant from each finger end. The frantic widow sat in grief upon the body of her husband, a most distressing spectacle, tossing her head and arms around her like one deranged. The Chiefs retired to their respective places apparently much chagrined that we should witness their folly, knowing that we should be highly displeased at their proceedings. What a state of wretchedness and woe, without God and without hope. What hath sin wrought that thus the hand of each should be lifted up against his fellow.

As the natives had not acted in conformity to their declaration to us on our arrival, to remain quiet until the Chiefs should assemble, we felt it needful to say that we should retire as early as possible. None from the Pa came near us, neither was there any noise through the night.

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Tuesday, 12. Several of the Chiefs came to know if we were going and with much evident feeling to prevail on our remaining a little longer, that if we left them there would be no hopes of effecting a reconciliation between the parties. We did not give a definite answer, wishing to see Karere off the first opportunity. Numbers of natives hanging about all day, keeping us in conversation.

Wednesday, 13. Fine. The bar very smooth, made every preparation for towing our little vessel out, which we effected comfortably with the two boats at the top of high water, by renewing the ballast in the boats, and delivering it again when out of difficulties; felt very thankful we were thus nearer our departure. Returned on shore and prepared for our departure, which we must endeavour to accomplish this evening, if possible. Passed through the Pa, and saw the widow of the man killed on Monday; she was still sitting by the corpse keeping off the flies and has continued her station night and day, her face and arms still smeared over with blood and filth, a prisoner of Satan, held fast bound in chains of superstition and darkness. Returned to the camp and put things in order to move at the rising of the moon as the wind is off shore during the night. The people thronged around and the Chiefs showed that they did not approve our decision. They pointed to some fires on the road, and said they wished us to remain until we heard from the party in the bush, as nothing could be done unless they were here. We concluded to remain a little longer. Number of natives in close conversation till very late.

Thursday, 14. Cloudy. We determined to wait one more day. After breakfast heard the firing of musketry beyond the Tumu, when the natives immediately prepared themselves for action and crossed over with all despatch to attack this side of the Pa, under the idea that their allies were assaulting the opposite part. They appeared perfectly to disregard anything we had to say, and left but a few old women and children behind. They expressed their confidence that the Pa of the enemy would be taken today. The sea breeze by this time had set in, otherwise we should have taken our departure. Titore's vessel in sight, who will conclude whether it is to be peace or war. The natives as they landed on the opposite side of the river assembled round their Priests who stood in the water while they went through their religious ceremony, sprinkling them occasionally with water, at the conclusion of which they caught up a handful of sand and throwing it into the river ran off with speed toward the enemy. There was a degree of admiration mixed with pity, while witnessing all this. How much more faithful are these page 294 deluded Soldiers of Satan to their Sovereign Lord and King in all observances required of them, than those who bear the name and are sworn to obey the King of Kings and Lord of Lords, who are for the most part ashamed of that holy name by which they are called, and do but dishonour Him in all their acts.

As these mad headed creatures approached the Pa, we perceived that they slackened their pace very materially, and that most of them sat down very contentedly under cover of a small hill, but few seemed disposed to turn out to be fired at. After about two hours they returned bringing two wounded, none killed. The firing continued beyond the Pa, supposed to be from the other party of these natives. The proceedings of the morning gave subject for numberless tongues of men and women to exercise their varied notes, as all claimed the privilege of indulging the assembled multitudes, relating the hairbreadth escapes these warriors had undergone in this brave transaction! “The King of France with forty thousand men, marched up the hill and then came down again.”

At 2.30 a party of the Troops which had been against the Tumu came in their wild and naked state, exclaiming that Tupaea19 a chief of Nateawa and twenty of his people were killed and their bodies taken, upon which all the women set up a dance and screaming, tossing up their heads and hands presenting a most infernal picture. It were impossible not to grieve and mourn for their sad and wretched condition. Some loss on this side. We were a little relieved to learn in a short time that the bodies of Nateawa were not brought away. After a little quietness was obtained we heard that the two men who were killed belonging to these tribes were left behind and consequently will be eaten by the enemy, and moreover that only four of the other party were killed. We may probably find that even this exceeds the truth. Near sunset we witnessed the religious ceremony upon the return of a party which had been out some days to way lay the enemy near one of the Pas. The party assembled naked, every person had a bunch of grass in each hand, the Priest an old greybearded man and of such slight material that a puff of wind would blow him to pieces, stood up in front with outstretched arms, holding three blades of long grass in each of his hands, and repeated over his karakia, or prayer, to Tu, the God of War. At the conclusion of the old mans service, the party delivered one bunch of the grass to him; they then all stood up and chanted a few words, clapping their hands at the same time, after which they ran down to the river, and wetting the second page 295 bunch of grass ran back and returned it to the Priest. I could not understand a word of the ceremony, nor was I able to prevail upon any to give it me. We were a good deal cast down by the proceedings of the day. Every appearance of a Gale; prepared accordingly.

Friday, 15. A most severe night. Wind and rain. Unable to sleep from the thoughts of this deluded people, from the effect of the rain, which found its way to my bed, and from the torment of the flies, which appeared to have sought refuge within, from the violence of the weather without.

At daylight wind had shifted to the westd. and the sun made its appearance. About 8 o'clock a number of the Nateawa came down on the opposite side of the river20, discharged their pieces, and began to haka to signify that they had just concluded their repast upon the two men taken yesterday. They soon retired when these people began to move toward them. The natives have now no observations to make to us; they keep aloof; they are flushed with expectation as to what Titore and the Rarawa will do. When will they know their real friends, and bow with submission to their God and Saviour; but the Lord will be exalted amongst the heathen, He will be exalted in the earth; to Him we must leave the decision of the present contest which was commenced and fostered through the folly of our Countrymen. We must now bend our course homewards. We must retire, but do not retreat. Satan fights us hard being enraged lest these his slaves should become the children of the living God. The people now involved in the war are those whom we have long desired to take under our more immediate care by placing Missionaries amongst them.

In the afternoon I heard that Te Amahau21 the father of the man shot on Monday, after he had concluded his crying over the corpse, addressed himself generally and said that as he had now lost a child in the war, it was for him to deliver his sentiments and that he should proceed with the Missionaries and make peace. He desired no satisfaction on account of his child, but that these proceedings might be stayed. We went to the Pa to learn the state of feeling, but most were asleep. A few were disposed for conversation, but nothing particularly to the purpose. At length we heard that Te Amahau was enquiring for us. When we met him he spoke of our going to the Tumu, for the purpose of consulting upon the propriety of making peace. He had now lost a son and was therefore entitled to speak and proposed to send one of my boys in the morng. with page 296 a letter to some of the leading men and should they be willing that we should then go round in my boat to Tauranga to meet Titore and the Rarawa. The poor man appeared very earnest in his desires and said he did not want satisfaction on acct. of his son but peace. He afterwards came to us and gave the needful instruction to the boy who was to go in the morning. I also wrote a letter to some of the leading men of Tauranga of his own dictation, and one to a Mr. Scott22 who resides there as flax agent requesting that he would render all the aid in his power. Mr. Tapsel who resides here for the same purpose begins to feel the necessity of the same thing, and I hope will endeavour to keep the people quiet.

Saturday, 16. A comfortable night. As soon as the messengers were despatched a large party of strangers paid us a visit. One poor man was very importunate for a blanket and declared that peace should not be made unless he had one; he came and intruded within the tent and sat upon part of the bed before I was aware of his movements. However as these are difficult times I kept them in good tune and they soon departed. The messenger returned in the afternoon; had met with a good reception. Tupaea the Chief mentioned as having been killed on Thursday was at the Pa and well; only two men were killed on that occasion. The Chiefs of Nateawa expressed themselves well disposed. Pango and others came in the eveng. and seemed more favourably than I had expected; it was determined to send the boys again in the morng.

Sunday, 17. Fine morng. The natives in the Pa very busy consulting their sticks as to the probable result of the present conference, whether peace or war—a great noise. Held our service at the usual time; very few persons besides our boys. At the conclusion our old Priest came and desired to say what his Atua had revealed to him, that there would be shedding of blood. I replied that his Atua was the Author of all mischief, by whom the country had been depopulated, that his own arm had been broken by his Atua, and that Te Aramiti23 a great Priest and his party, the instigators of this war, had been deceived by their Atua, and thus it was continually the case among them, lamentation and mourning and woe. All present assented to what was said that there was no good thing amongst them. I then warned the old man to flee from the wrath to come and seek to obtain peace with God through Jesus Christ.

After dinner went into the Pa; many disposed to cavil, extolling the power and excellency of their Gods; but were soon brought to page 297 silence. Others appeared desirous to hear us speak upon these things. The boys returned from the Tumu before sunset, bringing a good report and that they were anxious to see us. Were much encouraged at the conversation of our people, gradually giving way and desiring peace. It is a period of much anxiety and difficulty to do anything with such overgrown self-willed perverse children, where each possesses an opinion independent of the other, and liberty of acting. We should have but little hopes of effecting anything were it not for the promises of the Lords assistance and blessing. In the evening some of the Chiefs came to converse; tried to prevail with them to allow me to go over to the Tumu, which was opposed, as we must remain until the rear comes up. Mr. Tapsel expressed his determination to go over in the morning. The Chiefs were angry with him.

Monday, 18. Comfortable night. Some of the Chiefs came early; they expressed their opinion that peace would be made and urged the necessity of not leaving them to themselves, but that we must return, and that some Missionaries should be here to move continually amongst them to preserve peace, as by these means alone peace had been preserved in the Bay of Islands, and all the region round about. They are truly in the gaul of bitterness and in the bond of iniquity, unable to trust anyone, and consequently living in constant fear.

Tuesday, 19. Fine. News from the Tumu, that the Rarawa had entered Katikati and had attacked a party of men women and children who were residing in a careless and unprotected way. Two old persons were killed, who were unable to make off. We accordingly prepared to depart, our friend Te Amahau unwilling to accompany us, did not press him. As we passed the Tumu, Kiaroa came to the boat; the poor old man seemed glad to see us, and expressed a hope that we might be able to effect a peace. We had an uncomfortable passage to the entrance of Tauranga, as we were obliged to pull nearly the whole way; wind foul and considerable swell, and the boat heavy loaded.

Wednesday, 20. Entered the Harbour about 3 o'clock; found a Brig at anchor, which appeared a good deal alarmed at us, not knowing who we were, or disposed to understand. They threatened to fire at us; however we laid down and took rest till daylight. After breakfast I went on board the Brig, the Sarah, from Port Jackson, Captain Jack, of fame renowned; he was civil. Mr. Scott came down in the afternoon; long conversation upon the affairs of the natives. Made an attempt to pass up the river to the Rarawa. Considerable sea owing to the flood tide, which obliged us to turn page 298 back. Saw Nuka on board the Sarah; he tried to be angry at our not seeing him sooner; he said many things of an agrivating nature respecting Ngapuhi. How perverse is the heart of man to what is right and what a stranger to that peace joy and consolation possessed by those who know the Lord to be their God and Saviour and whose inheritance is beyond this world.

Thursday, 21. Went up the river in quest of Titore. As we passed along with the flood tide I was much struck with the great expanse of water extending many miles up the country with several level islands of considerable size, all capable of cultivation, and having marks of former fortification; but now in a state of desolation, through the destructive hand of war, and even now the wretched inhabitants, the scattered remnants, are closely besieged. We found the Rarawa nearer than was expected, sitting in a free and easy way, living at the expense of their enemies upon kumara, potatoes, pumkin. As we approached the beach, the troops were turned out to salute us, who divided into two parties, and gave us one of their infernal dances brought from the regions below; however, as it was intended as a compliment, it was needful to receive it as such. I was conducted into the presence of the General Officers, Titore, Papahia, &c., &c., and introduced to Rohu24, a Chief from Natemaru, who had joined them with about 70 men. We reported all the news we possessed, and learnt theirs; had conversation with the different parties, particularly the Natemaru, whom I now met for the first time. They appeared much pleased and surprised that any European should come among them for the purpose of turning them from their ancient custom of killing each other. They related their own sufferings from war, and their strong desire that Missionaries might be amongst them to preserve peace. I replied that this was our desire, but that it was impossible unless it became a general wish. I enquired of Titore what was the proposed movement, and what I was to say to the opposite party to Nateawa. He first told me that they should fight, but after some long private conversation with Papahia, he told me to go to Otumoetai and say that we should meet them at the Tumu and then fight, that as we had come here he should pass by these Pas and go on. As this was one great point gained I told him that would do for that time, but that we would meet him in the morng. and have another contest for peace and general return to our homes. We took our departure and went to Otumoetai. The natives page 299 assembled on our landing and as they all seemed in anxious expectation of hearing something important I addressed them, and spoke to them upon the object of our coming amongst them to endeavour to stop proceedings, that many had been killed since last we were here. I expressed our desire to see peace established in order that Missionaries might come amongst them. I told them what Titore had said. After which a young Chief arose and said that what I had spoken was not correct, that we had brought the Ngapuhi down, and also potatoes for them in a ship, and that Titore was not true to his word. He continued for some time and called upon others to confirm his statements. I at length replied to him, calling to mind the many services we had rendered to them. The potatoes in question were for the boys in the boats and as for the ship the Ngapuhi had come in, all knew it did not belong to us. He soon turned away much confused; all expressing their approbation of my statements. They appeared rejoiced at the prospect of peace, tho doubtful of the veracity of Titores statement; they said they hoped we should return to Ngapuhi in the morning, and acquaint them with the result of our meeting. I took a view of the Pa and was surprised to observe it so much out of repair, the fence in many places was altogether down.

Friday, 22. A squally, rough night; heavy rain toward morng.; wind suddenly changed about 7 and cleared up. Soon heard the sound of distant musketry, and with our glasses observed the Ngapuhi making an attack on Otumoetai, tho with much caution; the people of the Pa in their trenches not returning their fire. As this was an act contrary to the promise Titore had made to me, we determined not to go near him. Much grieved at the perverseness of their ways. Went up the river to Maungatapu to see Mr. Scott and the Natives. I did not perceive any Chief of note in the Pa and but few men; the fences also very much out of repair, as at Otumoetai. Nuka was very civil and desirous that we should still have communication with the Ngapuhi, but all appeared very indifferent.

Saturday, 23. Morning very fine, not a cloud to be seen, and the wind fair for our return home, but detained by the non-arrival of the old lady who came with us to see Kiaroa, and whom we must not leave behind; despatched two messengers to the Tumu to fetch her. As we were obliged to remain we went up to the camp of the Rarawa, not that we had any hope of effecting anything, but in compliance of the wish of the poor natives of this place. Titore did not immediately appear, in consequence of the firing of yesterday. He said that it was altogether against his will, and that it was merely page 300 the party going out to forage. As it was in all probability our last visit to them, I called up all my ability to speak to them upon the evils they were bringing upon themselves. If they fought, many must fall, much to lose and nothing to gain. Titore and Papahia listened attentively but expressed their idea that they might be required to fight. Whilst deeply engaged in our council, we observed an instantaneous uproar amongst the natives running in all directions. We soon learnt that a slave belonging to Rohu, a leading person belonging to the Thames, had run over from Otumoetai. He was much alarmed for some time, but as he acquired confidence, he gave a statement of the position of the enemy, in all points agreeable to the desires of the persons among whom he now was. When all the news was obtained which this youth had to communicate, there was a general scuffle for his person, and many of the Chiefs flew upon each other with savage fury, and several were soon rolling in the dust; others caught up their guns, while Titore and others exercised their abilities with unwieldy sticks in driving all before them. After some time order was in a degree restored, when all turned out to Haka. We took our leave at this period, glad to retire from so grievious a scene, and with many downcast feelings proceeded to Otumoetai. We did not remain long after relating to them the state of feeling among the Rarawa, and returned to our encampment by dusk. We learnt from our boys that as we were retiring, Titore and Papahia called back one of them to say that they could not tell us to remain longer with them, for they could not control their people, but they would endeavour to move on Monday morning, in which case we should all proceed to Maketu. This in some measure cheered our spirits. We thought we discerned a ray of hope.

Sunday, 24. Fine morng. Went to Maungatapu. On landing we observed the Europeans busily engaged in pressing flax and sending it on board the Brig. Numbers of natives occupied with them. What an example to these poor creatures; but few Europeans among them, and they publicly shewing their entire disregard to the sacred day of the Most High. We assembled the people of the Pa and spoke to them of eternal things, tho my heart was much cast down at the dreadful state of things in every point of view. Closely beset on all sides. About 300 of the enemy amongst the woods in the rear, and the Rarawa but a short distance in front, and not more than 150 men in the Pa and they in a most careless state. Gave a few words to Nuka and returned to our quarters.

Monday, 25. A sleepless night under the expectation of the Rarawa pulling out for Maketu, when we were to join them. The page 301 morng. cloudy. No appearance of our friends, whom we particularly wished to see. At 8 heard musketry in the old quarter at Otumoetai and observed the Rarawa in their favourite corner with their usual caution, evidencing extreme disrelish to partake of the indigestible provision of Nateawa. After some considerable time they retired from the field. The clouds moving from the N.W. we did not attempt to move homewards. The namus so very troublesome we could scarcely keep clear of them tho slaying them by thousands. In the afternoon the Rarawa returned to their corner near the Pa, and kept up their firing till sunset. Sometimes they appeared to be in close action. The Nateawa reserving their fire and sallying out occasionally. Sent the boat to Otumoetai to learn particulars. 2 men and one woman killed belonging to the Pa and some wounded. Of the Rarawa 3 men killed, two of whom were taken into the Pa and consequently will be devoured. Titore a good deal vexed at the result of this days work, and declared to our boys that the people would not listen to him. Every appearance of a gale from the Northd.; prepared accordingly.

Tuesday, 26. A quiet night. At daylight calm but cloudy, afraid to move out. No stir amongst the natives, all quiet. At 5 p.m. light airs from the N.E.; left the harbour on our way home, in all seventeen including Hamu our old lady who accompanied us from the Bay, besides a dog and two kittens. Our boat was very full. We pulled to Karewa, a small island 8 miles from Tauranga. Some of the boys landed here to look for birds and potatoes. Upon the island are Ruatara25, a species of the lizard about a foot in length, which are regarded by the natives as Atua. Strict orders given not to disturb them in their holes lest we should be upset. About 8 o'clock a light air from Southd.; got underweigh and stood on our course.

Wednesday, 27. Light airs from the Southd. About 2 o'clock a large fish struck the boat which much startled the boys. Weather came on very thick suddenly between 3 and 4. Lost sight of Mr. Chapman which gave us much uneasiness as he had not a compass. Shortened sail and the boys exerted their lungs to let them know where we were, but no answer. At daylight black threatening clouds around, the land seen in places through the haze; observed Mr. Chapman long distance astern. The breeze gradually increased and by 8 o'clock we were close to the head land of this deep bay, where we regarded ourselves as it were at home, as being able to put page 302 ashore at any time. At 10 abreast of Wangamata, and at 1 p.m. we landed at Wakahau. Proceeded immediately to pitch our tents, as the Gale was fast breaking upon us. Mr. Chapman landed in less than an hour. We were scarcely snug when the rain began to fall violently, but we were in good quarters and the boats hauled well up and everything in its place, and plenty of fires burning. We felt thankful to our Heavenly Father for this an other instance of His protecting care respecting us.

Thursday, 28. A most forbidding night, the tent shook violently from the gale and the rain continued without intermission until long past sunrise. I was notwithstanding enabled to sleep as comfortably as on any night since being out. Tho the sea was very tempestuous, the water in our little bay was perfectly smooth. the boys enjoyed themselves very much, catching eels and shellfish in great abundance. We had a dish of eels for supper, stewed in the first stile by Mr. Chapman, nothing could exceed their flavour, or the abilities of our caterer. Notwithstanding our Gipsy like mode of life for these many weeks past we have had fresh baked bread, puddings baked and boiled—peach, plum and gooseberry—tea, coffee and chocolate; ducks, snipe and pigeons; fish of various kinds, with oysters and cockles; this with a glass of wine, port or sherry as circumstances required and much fatigue enabled us to enjoy our rest at night and to discharge our duties by day. At sunset dark heavy clouds hanging upon the hills opposite to us. Light airs from the Southd.

Friday, 29. Clouds clearing away; breeze still as last eveng.; launched the boats, packed up our baggage, took breakfast, and were soon underweigh. Considerable swell from the late Gale, but passed comfortably along with the breeze. At 3 p.m. fine; put into a small bay to cook some food for the boys and proceeded on our voyage. Wished if possible to double Cape Colvel as we should then be in a fair way to cross the Thames or run up as circumstances might admit. The moon in her first quarter, which would materially assist us on our way, as we could proceed night and day. As we drew near Port Charles the swell was very considerable and the boys tired. We determined to put in till morning; with care we found our way in, and obtained a quiet place, where we came to anchor but did not like to venture on shore in the dark. We lay down in the boat under cover of a great hill. Mr. Chapman not in sight.

Saturday, 30. The night very clear and cold; should have been glad of a cup of tea. The Parrots making a great noise in the trees close to us, but we slept well till daylight. Could not observe anyone on shore. Put out in quest of Mr. Chapman as we had not page 303 heard anything of him and passed round to Tangiaro, a fine little bay, perfectly smooth. No signs of the boat; took breakfast. About 10 Mr. Chapman pulled round. We had been near each other all night, but concealed by the darkness, and shade of the land. At 2 calm. Endeavoured to pass to Omaha but as the tide so strong and fearing the sea which might thereby be raised, we determined to alter our course and go up to Haurake and pass across from thence. About 10 we landed on one of the numerous islands where the water was perfectly smooth, kindled a large fire and had supper under an overhanging cliff; a pleasing change from the beat. We formed our bed of the stones and soon fell asleep.

Sunday, 31. Slept comfortably. Daylight shewed us more particularly our position. The island was a shapeless mass of detached fragments of rock, which had once been in a fluid state. Blocks of granite of various dimensions hung suspended to the ceiling by a very small portion, which struck us with wonder how that such considerable weights were kept from falling. After we had breakfasted and held prayers with the natives we pulled up with the flood tide to the place we had wanted to have landed at last night. We saw many fires, but as we approached we observed the people fled with all expedition, and it was not till they discovered that we were in boats and not canoes that some ventured to come near us. When they were convinced that we belonged to the mission they came forth with evident pleasure and began immediately to provide food. They had been apprehensive that we formed part of an expedition of which they had received notice, was quartered at Aotea, under Marupo, directed against them. They treated us kindly. The children appeared very interesting; we should have been glad to have taken them with us. The people here wished us to proceed further up the river. We consequently passed on to Waiau, Koromandel Harbour, several of the Chiefs going with us. The natives as we approached greatly alarmed and fled, but returned as soon as they heard the voice of their friends. This Harbour has the appearance of a large lake, and presents a most beautiful and picturesque scene. We held a long conversation with these people. They were much delighted to find a European capable of speaking to them, and rejoiced at our desire for Missionaries to come in this neighbourhood. In the evening we held karakia, and delivered our message in the name of the Lord.

We observed a poor fellow sitting among them who had received a dreadful wound at the back of his neck which must nearly have severed his head from his body. He was one of a party at Ahuahu, amongst the Mercury islands, when Te aramiti scoured the place. page 304 He was left for dead, but towards evening finding himself yet alive he crept amongst some rushes, and afterwards constructed a canoe of raupo, and crossed over to the main. The wound was about 9 inches and must have been inflicted with a Billhook, by which the spine was preserved. It is distressing to see the state in which these people live, they are in perpetual dread of an enemy and yet themselves always ready to take advantage of others; ever at war with Tauranga, Waikato, and until very recently, with Ngapuhi. Had a late supper and retired to rest.

Monday, 1 April. Much refreshed by a sound sleep upon my bed. Sleeping in the boat or upon stones by no means desirable. Our friends talking nearly all night. At break of day after breakfast some of the leading men entered our boats and we passed on to the Southd. to another place, as several were particularly desirous that we should have some conversation with Kawero a Chief of note for his bad qualities; he appeared the Savage, a full quick suspicious eye. Our friends introduced us to him, told him we were Missionaries and that one of our objects was to induce all to live quietly and in peace, and that he must attend to what we had to say. He pleaded the necessity of the case. I prevailed with him to let a Son of his accompany me to the Bay. A general crying took place previous to his departure and many injunctions not to deliver him up to Ngapuhi to be killed. We took our departure under a salute of many guns, and passed over to the large island called Waiheke, much pleased with our visit hitherto. The large island which stands in the middle of the Thames appears to possess many advantages, as it is nearly encircled with smaller ones, forming various anchorages well protected from wind and sea. The island is well covered with timber, besides a considerable quantity of land for cultivation, tho very hilly, and fine streams of water. We landed at the Western end at sunset and dined. A valuable spot did these people enjoy peace, as from the observations we could make we should consider this to be a favourite fishing place. We proceeded on by the light of the moon which had now grown large and anchored our boats between Rangitoto and Motutapu, We lay down in the boats, not wishing to land, but the fleas were intolerable owing to the boys laying so close to me.

Tuesday, 2. Fine night. At 2 a.m. we proceeded on our voyage as the tide had sufficiently flowed for us to pass between the islands. As we drew near to Maurangi we had to contend with considerable sea owing to the tide. To a person not experienced in boat sailing I consider this place dangerous, as from the strength of the tide a sea may be tossed up in a few minutes which would require great page 305 care and prudence to pass through. As we approached the entrance of the river, we observed Mr. Fairburn in our settlement boat coming towards us from a small river to the left. We were happy to learn that he with Mr. Shepherd were on a visit here. We were thereby enabled to receive news from home of the welfare of our families and felt thankful to the Father of all mercies for His unspeakable care. Much refreshed after a good breakfast and a little putting to rights. Conversed with several natives here and some principal Chiefs, Rauroha26 and Kupenga27; they appeared much gratified at the prospect of any Missionaries coming into the neighbourhood. Great abundance of shark taken here in the season of a small kind, which forms an important article of food.

Wednesday, 3. The night very cold and fine; wind had shifted and become fair for both parties. Messrs. Shepherd and Fairburn took their departure for the Southd. and we for the Northd.; called in at Maurangi to see Mr. G. Brown who had commenced an establishment for timber &c. Ship Nancy here. Cap. Dacre kindly offered any assistance we might stand in need of, but we had so husbanded our store of etceteras that we did not require any replenishing. Patuone hindered us for a long time in crying with Hamu our old lady who was a near relative of his. We went to see them in order to break up the assembly; they presented a shocking spectacle, so besmeared with blood we could not recognise any person. Took our departure about one o'clock, wind S.S.W. and after rough sailing arrived at our favourite little cove at dusk; took dinner and prepared for a continuation of our voyage during the night as the wind was fair, night fine and the moon at full. Was occupied some time in fitting some boards on the boat's quarter to defend from the sea. At 8 we got underweigh and passed comfortably along under close reefed sail. Wind rather strong at times.

Thursday, 4. Fine clear night; fresh breeze occasionally but as we kept close to the land the water was smooth. At 3 we were close to “Te Wara”, high land of Wangari. At daylight close to Tutukaka but the swell so very great did not like to enter. Felt very page 306 weary, not having been able to take a wink of sleep, as there was no one to whom I could entrust the helm. Gave the boys some fragments of food and pushed on until we rounded Cape Brett about 4 p.m., keeping the boys in close exercise in reefing and making sail as wind varied. With difficulty we doubled the Cape owing to the strength of the wind, and pulled into Maunganui and partook of our first meal for the day. At dusk we again took our seats in the boat, and as we had now arrived at the last stage of our voyage and the wind had subsided, the boys pulled in good stile, and by 11 o'clock I landed on our beach and in a few minutes learned the gratifying intelligence that all were well. It was a season of much gratitude to meet my family, my wife and nine children, all in good health after an absence of nine weeks Bless the Lord oh my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name. Bless the Lord o my soul and forget not all His benefits.

Friday, 5. Good Friday. Cap. Clendons vessel arrived from the Colony with abundance of letters, Public and Private. Felt too weary from being so long in the boat that I could not sleep. Divine Service held in the morning.

Saturday, 6. Tohitapu came to pay his respects, and to hear the news to the Southd. He had much to say as to what he had learnt at the Shipping, relative to the intention of the Missionaries to take the land, and make slaves of the Chiefs, and that we were to receive a number of dollars for each person who became a believer. Tupe our old friend from Wangaroa arrived in his Canoe with whom I had some interesting conversation. Heard with considerable regret of the ill behaviour of Heke to Dr. Ross, as since his return from Tauranga he had been very attentive to instruction, and appeared a reformed character.

Sunday, 7. Fine. Two canoes came over from Kororarika full of people to attend service; the Chapel overflowing. In the afternoon a native was brought over from the Wahapu with his head laid open to the skull by a blow from a stick, given by an American who was in all probability intoxicated; it appeared to affect the poor fellow in a very trifling degree, tho it would in all probability have deprived a European of his senses. Passed over to Kororarika under the impression of finding a considerable degree of opposition, but on the contrary all were very kind. Saw many of the nobility with whom I had long conversation.

Monday, 8. Fine. At school in the morng. Kauwiti and party came to learn the news, and occupied me nearly all day.

Tuesday & Wednesday, 9, 10. Assembled in Committee to conclude the business of last Quarterly Meeting, and to discuss some important questions relative to the children.

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Thursday, 11. Mr. Wilson28 and family arrived from Sydney; no particular news.

Sunday, 14. In the afternoon an express came from Cap. Clendon that a party of natives were there which threatened to strip him. Went up to his place with the boys but was too late as the business had been concluded some time, and the people clear off with a considerable number of things; the reason was not known. I passed on to the party which was a short distance up the river, but could not recover anything from them; they told me that they had been very lenient in not stripping the place altogether. The excuse assigned was that Mr. Stephenson29 had observed that a certain iron pot which Kauwiti had been looking at a few days before, would make him a very good hat. This expression is regarded by these natives as a Kanga, or equal to a threat to his being cooked in an iron pot. I sent a messenger up the river to ask Hiamoe and Kauwiti to come down to see what could be done in this affair.

Monday, 15. Attended the English boy's school. In the afternoon went over to Kororarika to see the natives; the conversation chiefly upon the state of things to the Southd. Messenger returned from Hiamoe, he and Kauwiti had come down to Otuihu, where they would wait a call from us.

Tuesday, 16. Went up the river to Kauwiti; the old man very obstinate and could do nothing with him.

Wednesday, 17. Went to Waitangi to see Dr. Ross. A messenger over from Mr. Mair, with the intelligence that a number of Europeans and natives were in the act of pulling down the house on the Island30, and to request that some one would go over, as it was not known how far these men might be disposed to act as they were intoxicated. Went across but the house in question was down

Thursday, 18. Captain Powditch came over to consult upon the affairs of yesterday. The alarm given that Mr. Mair's premises were on fire at the Wahapu. We spoke to Poyner &c., &c., upon the folly of their conduct. Great confusion. Numbers of natives about ready to take advantage of the passing scene. Dr. and Mrs. Ross came over and took up their abode for a few days with us.

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Friday, 19. Went over to Tepuna to see Warepoaka respecting some strange natives who had been brought from the East Cape against their will by Cap. Black of the Elizabeth, English Whaler, and turned over to him as their slaves.31

Saturday, 20. Comparatively a quiet day. No particular interruption, beyond a call from Mr. Polack32 a settler who came with a party of natives, being in treaty with them for some land and in need of a little interpretation.

Sunday, 21. After service went over to Kororarika; between 70 and 80 in attendance; a considerable number in the place. After we had concluded our service, one of the chiefs desired to know the meaning of the intelligence communicated to them by Tami and Cap. Boulger of our receiving dollars for every tangata wakapono (believer). I referred him to them as it was equally new to us as to himself. It appears that Satan through the means of these his agents has been very industriously circulating the idea of our intention to seize the Chiefs in a short time, and have them conveyed to England, and that for those who receive our instruction we are to receive dollars according to the rank of the individual. Passed on to Tarea, Rewa, Tohitapu, &c., &c.; all very civil, but spoke upon the subject of the dollars and enquired how many we had received on account of Ripi and Temorenga.

Monday, 22. Went to Kerikeri to attend a special committee. Active ordered to proceed to the East Cape to convey the natives brought up by Captain Black. My brother and some one else to take charge of them. Mr. Wilson to be held as a disposable member for the Southd. Returned home by dusk.

Tuesday, 23. Fine. Met those natives in the eveng. disposed for more particular instruction.

Thursday, 25. Rain all day. Met our natives in the evening.

Friday, 26. Rain all day. Met the Communicants in the eveng. for examination; in a pleasing frame of mind.

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Saturday, 27. Thick fog. Could not go to Waimate owing to the wet. In the afternoon I buried a European who was drowned last evening while in a state of intoxication. Addressed a few words at the grave to those who brought him over, but I fear they were but idle words. Yet we have this assurance that “the word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart”. Felt great regret that I could not in the utmost stretch of charity read the whole of that beautiful service over our departed brother sinner.

Sunday, 28. This morng. administered the Sacrament to the natives; but five communicants. After dinner went to Kororarika, about 40 in attendance; numbers of Europeans on the beach, indulging themselves in the grog shops which are now becoming general. Flags of various colours displayed, bidding welcome to all who would enter therein; the natives referred to them as the ware karakia of Satan, where his followers assembled to do him honour. Passed through the Pa, a scene of confusion, but did not observe any drunken men.

Monday, 29. Fine. The Active sailed with my brother and Mr. Hamlin for Rangihoua in order to receive the natives whom they were to convey to the East Cape, belonging to Na te Poro.

Tuesday, 30. Fine. Marupo arrived from the southd. with several canoes. We were much relieved on hearing that he had not been engaged in any mischief in the Thames, as we had apprehended; he had not been beyond Wangari; the party was very quiet. Considerable stir amongst the natives, and particularly amongst the Urikapana, in consequence of the illness of Temorenga. They intimate that should he die we shall meet with a general upset. This does not disturb our peace tho we have no doubt that many would embrace with delight such a pretext if they were confident of support. Ripeka, a young girl who has been with us for these seven years past, and was baptised about two years since, went away this morning against all remonstrance because her friends would not allow of her marriage with one of my boys. Alas, alas, alas! This is painful, but she is in the Lord's hand, who will do with her as seemeth good in His sight. The Active sailed this evening for the East Cape, after long detention.

Thursday, 2 May. At breakfast Mr. Brown came with the unpleasant news that a messenger had arrived from Hokianga, bringing the intelligence that Cap. Clendon's vessel had been plundered page 310 to a considerable amount. At 10 I took my departure for the Waimate; the road much improved. Slept at Puketona to refresh the horse, and offered a few words to the natives there. Arrived at the Waimate about tea time; all well. All much concerned at the news from Hokianga.

Friday, 3. Wind East. Heavy rain nearly all day.

Saturday, 4. In the course of the night the wind shifted to N.W. and rain ceased. After breakfast Messrs. Clarke and Davis and I rode to Taiamai to see Te Morenga. Found him far better than was expected; nothing serious in his case. Took a survey of the land in the neighbourhood of Pouerua; good, but very stony; ascended the hill, from which we had a very extensive view. The hill has formerly been a volcano. The crater appears entire and the bottom we could not discover. It is more than a quarter of a mile in diameter at the mouth and the sides of the interior are covered with trees of various sizes. Our time would not admit of our descending; this we reserved for a future day. The hill appears composed of loose portions of Iava, with very rich earth to the summit. Arr'd at the settlement by sunset. Cap. Clendon had passed through about 2 hours confirming the account of the plundering of his vessel and that the natives had fought, when 10 were killed on one side and 11 on the other. The natives wish that the Ngapuhi would sit quietly and not interfere in the affair. These are distressing circumstances. All appears in state of great agitation, and everyone expecting some great convulsion to take place. The voice of many is lifted up for war, but as yet tranquility is preserved.

Sunday, 5. Dark cloudy weather. After an early dinner I rode to Maunga Kauakaua; stopt at two places where were small assemblies of men, women and children. Passed on to see old Hihi, but as it began to rain were obliged to make haste back. Held service at 6 o'clock.

Monday, 6. Heavy gale all night from S E. with usual rain. At 11 a.m. my boy Matiu arr'd from Paihia, with news of the arrival of the Consul33 in a man of war yesterday afternoon. No letters page 311 from England or the Colony. Rain continued heavy. Determined not to move.

Tuesday, 7. The Gale continued through the night with torrents of rain; obliged to remain quiet. This is the first heavy rain this season and will create a high flood in all the low lands which will cause much damage to the crops of corn and potatoes not yet gathered in. At noon the heavy dark clouds began to disperse and the sun shone forth to revive the face of nature, but as the rivers were greatly swollen I could not proceed home.

Wednesday, 8. At 9 Messrs. Puckey and Matthews and self left in the midst of rain for the Kerikeri where we arrived about noon, not very wet. Mr. Chapman accompanied me down to Paihia; all well. Mr. Busby on shore in the morning. About 11 o'clock my brother and Mr. Hamlin from the Active, having put back in consequence of the severe weather experienced outside; they were enabled to reach within a few miles of the spot where they wished to go, but were obliged to bear up for the Bay, having split several of their sails.

Thursday, 9. Rain. Mr. Chapman and I went on board, all very polite; remained on board until 7 o'clock, answering multitudes of question. Much pleased with Cap. Blackwood and Mr. Busby. Rain all day.

Friday, 10. Weather more promising. In the afternoon Cap. B., Mr. Busby and Dr. Hausley, came on shore, disposed to see every body and every thing. Conducted our guests to the Infant and Native girls schools. An invitation to dinner for tomorrow.

Saturday, 11. Cloudy. Mr. Busby came on shore. Cap. Clendon and Dr. Ross called; occupied with them till near sunset. Heard that there had been more fighting at Hokianga, but on the arrival of our messenger to call the chiefs to assemble here, peace was made and all proposed to come over and hear what King William had to say to them. My brother, Mr. Brown and Mr. Wilson, went on board; was glad to remain behind and be quiet.

Sunday, 12. Wind continues from the Eastd.; cloudy; prospect of a Gale. Captain Blackwood arr'd by 8.30 with about fifteen of his officers. The Chapel very full, our visitors appeared much pleased with all they saw and heard. Mr. Busby remained until the eveng. and returned on board. None of the Europeans were able to move out owing to the weather.

Monday, 13. A gale with heavy rain; our projected expedition to Waimate, with Cap. Blackwood &c., &c., at an end, which was a considerable relief to me. Cleared my study for the reception of Mr. Busby, being the only apartment in the settlement which can page 312 by any means be given up to his accomodation, and that to my utmost inconvenience; but there does not appear any other place in the neighbourhood where we can deposit so great a personage. We have great hopes of his influence over the natives and trust therefore that this disarrangement of our domestic economy, will not be in vain; but these good people who thus introduce themselves amongst us, coming so immediately from civil life, are incapable of knowing the extent of attention they require, or of additional work they provide. Having been accustomed to give orders, and their wishes are immediately executed, it is nothing but time and a proportion of shaking up which enables them to fall gradually into their respective places. It certainly is a prodigious change to anyone who has been accustomed to servants, to find themselves in so short a space as from Sydney to this place, thrown upon their own resources in a great degree, as the occupation of each European is so entirely taken up in the duties of each day. Often have we had most unreasonable requests made by persons newly arriving amongst us, arising from their own nonacquaintance of our situation and of the offices we have severally to perform, and our dependance one upon another. But these are smaller matters which soon rectify themselves.

Tuesday, 14. Heavy gale through the night and in the morning, the bay in dreadful agitation, the breakers extending very far out. At 11 Mr. Busby came on shore in heavy rain, and remained till sunset. A few slices of bacon and some pipis for dinner; a good introduction to our table, as many run away with the idea that we have little else to do than to attend to our personal comfort and convenience. Pita and Pohe came in the eveng.; they gave a very satisfactory evidence of the state of their minds. At night all well tired. The different families busy with the preparation for the meeting of the natives on the landing of Mr. Busby which is to take place as soon as the weather will admit of it.

Wednesday, 15. Light airs from the Eastd. Went over to the Man of War; the Capn. particularly polite. Continued on to Kororarika; the natives in good humour at the idea of the general convocation. Passed on to Cap. Clendons to learn the amount of his loss and the particulars. It appeared a daring affair; the parties had used a light in the Store, and taken property to the value of £100. It must have been committed by persons well acquainted with the premises. After taking some refreshment with these kind people, proceeded on to Otuihu, but the Chief had gone to Paihia. Returned home. Mr. White had arrived, having swam across Waiarue. The natives from Hokianga at the Waimate on their way. Mr. King arrived from Tepuna.

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Thursday, 16. Fine. The wind continued from the Eastd. Mr. Busby came on shore to make final arrangements for the ceremony of his landing in State tomorrow morng. Everyone, young and old, Europeans and Natives under arms in full preparation. Messrs. Kemp, Baker, Davis, Clarke and Puckey arrived; also the natives from Hokianga, &c., &c.

Friday, 17. Everyone on the move at break of day, in order that all things might be in readiness to give our guests a welcome due to so great on occasion as the landing of the British Resident, and his introduction to the Chiefs and Nobles of this land, accompanied by the Captain and officers of h.m. Ship Imogene.

Canoes from Kororarika, Waikari, and Kauakaua, &c., soon made their appearance with the principal men of those districts, who took up their respective quarters and soon constructed sheds sufficiently good to protect them from the weather which appeared rather threatening. Each seemed anxious to learn the nature of Mr. Busby's commission and whether the Man of War was to remain in the Bay, and if soldiers were to be landed. The various parties very busy in rubbing up their muskets, &c., as it was determined to give the visitors a native salutation.

At 10.30 observed the boats put off from the Man of War, under a Salute of Seven Guns. All was in immediate commotion to dispose of their numbers to the greatest effect; all retired to the extreme end of the Settlement, from which the strangers were to enter. At 11, Mr. Busby, with Cap. Blackwood and the Officers of the Ship, landed, and advanced slowly towards the Natives, who were crouching down, ready for a spring at the signal given. They arose with their usual horrid scream, and rushed forward with the utmost impetuosity till within a few paces of our party, when they halted, and after regulating their ranks, with much vociferation set up a Haka, brandishing their muskets, and distorting their countenances to the no small astonishment of the strangers. They then delivered their speeches bidding welcome to their land; this continued for a short time, after which we passed to the Chapel Yard, where all were soon assembled with manifest interest to hear His Majesty's gracious communication. Seats had been provided for the Europeans, and also a table upon which was placed the letter from Lord Goderich, the Secretary of State. After silence had been obtained Mr. Busby broke the Great Seal of this important document and read it in English; this of course could not be understood except by the Europeans. A translation had been prepared which was then read; also of Mr. Busby's speech, which he delivered at the same time. Several chiefs spoke in succession, expressive of page 314 their satisfaction at Mr. B.'s arrival. At the conclusion Mr. B. presented the leading men with a blanket and about 6 Ib. of tobacco each. The Officers of the Man of War and the Europeans residing in the neighbourhood, besides several of the Missionaries, partook of refreshment at my house, about fifty in number, no small party in this distant land, with our means of accomodation. At 3 the natives were served with their repast of beef potatoes and stirabout. As our boys have had some experience in this important duty at our annual meetings, our visitors were a good deal surprised at the order and expedition with which this assemblage of New Zealand rank was supplied, as the feast consisted of about 800 dishes constructed of a plant similar to the flag.

All passed off very agreeably with a slight exception. The worthy Captain who could not enter into our views and feelings, had expressed a very strong desire to visit Waimate, and two efforts had been made for that purpoes, but the weather proving very bad rendered it impossible, but as there appeared to be a change, he now proposed that we should undertake the expedition in the morning, sleep at Waimate, and that he and his party shd. return by way of Kerikeri to the Ship on Sunday after the morning service. We proposed that he shd. remain the Sunday there as their return on the Sabbath would seriously affect the cause in which we were engaged. He pleaded the shortness of his time and his instructions from the Admiral to return by a certain date, and as he was exceedingly tohe, we were under the necessity of speaking in plain terms, that we regretted that our instructions forbid either ourselves or the stranger within our gates from violating the Sabbath day, that could he remain a few days we should have great pleasure in shewing him the country. This good man very inquisitive upon all subjects connected with the Mission, and particularly to learn what amusements we had to assist in beguiling the time.

Saturday, 18. Gale from the North; rain; much wearied with the late commotion. Occupied for a length of time with Mr. Busby, and in his service. The brethren returned to their respective places.

Sunday, 19. Wind N.W. As we were going to the House of God to assemble in solemn prayer and praise, the Man of War was getting under weigh, thus bidding defiance to the command of the King of Kings. I grieved for them. Much state and precision in their movements; but of what worth, all external, all superficial, all vanity, and thus perplexity and vexation of Spirit. In the afternoon went to Kororarika, about 30 persons in attendance. Saw Moka and Warerahi; they were civil, but could not attend; it was below page 315 their dignity being Chiefs. Alas, Alas. Who hath believed our report, and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed.

Monday, 20. Fine. Attended at the English boys' school in the forenoon; a relief to be in the regular course of duty. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson went up to the Kerikeri. In the afternoon went to Waitangi with Mr. Busby, to see the land which has been proposed that he should occupy; took tea with Dr. and Mrs. Ross.

Tuesday, 21. Squally. Mr. Busby and I went to Kororarika by appointment to see the Chiefs. All very kind; they had prepared a feast of Pigeons, Pipis and Kumara. While here the Prince of Denmark Schr. arrived from Port Jackson and anchored at a short distance. As Mr. Busby's stores &c. were on board, we went off to her to learn the news; found that Mr. Morgan34 and five Wesleyan Missionaries35 were on board. Much perplexed to know how to act, but could do no other than ask all on shore until some preparation could be made, as from the flying reports received from Port Jackson deprived us of that pleasure we once enjoyed in receiving a brother Missionary for a season.—The weather extremely bad, wind, and rain, and with great difficulty we pulled on shore. All taken by surprise and every house filled. But little news from the Colony.

Wednesday, 22. Modt. weather. Accompanied Mr. Busby up the river to return his calls to Messrs. Mair, and Powditch. Captain and Mrs. Wright, and Captain and Mrs. Clendon returned by dusk Mr. Hobbs arrived in the settlement from Hokianga; brought the news that his boat, which had been built at their Settlement for the purpose of being taken to Tongatapu, and was on her way round to the Bay, had been driven on shore at the North Cape in a gale of wind. No one lost but the crew stript as soon as they landed.

Thursday, 23. Fine. Mr. Busby's goods began to be landed; constant interruption. Saw poor Eruana; he was in considerable bodily suffering, but possessing a well grounded hope, he obs'd that he was ready to depart. In the eveng. pleasing conversation with 3 boys.

Friday, 24. Much interrupted through the day by the landing of page 316 Mr. Busby's stores &c., and also attending to the Wesleyan brethren. In the eveng. met our Christian natives previous to the administering the Sacrament on Sunday; they expressed themselves with pleasing simplicity. Our work grows upon us, for as these lambs of the Lord are brought into the fold, they need our constant care; they are but children, even little children; yea, as new born babes, and require to be fed with milk, and that continually.

Saturday, 25. In the afternoon our lost sheep Ripeka returned from the country, at which we were much comforted.

Sunday, 26. Fine. Full congregation of Natives and Europeans. Upwards of 60 English, morning and afternoon. Administered the Sacrament to only four natives. In the evening accompanied by Mr. Busby went to see Koropu, who had sent thru: found him in a very pleasing frame of mind.

Monday, 27. Gale from the North; much rain; the wind violent at sunset. Mr. White arrived from Hokianga.

Tuesday, 28. Fine morng. wind from the Westd. Mr. Hobbs arr'd in the afternoon from Hokianga. Our Wesleyan brethren occupying everybody's time, which has been more or less the case during the week. This little child of theirs (their Mission) has been continually in our arms from its birth, and has been nursed and cherished with parental care, but it does not appear to increase in stature or acquire strength; it is now more than Eleven years old and what further steps should be adopted I must not devise, but it is surely high time when it should run about and pick up crumbs for itself or be put out to nurse; perhaps change of air might be beneficial; it is very evident that active measures must be adopted. Seven of the Wesleyan Missionaries in our settlement at night, their movements undecided.

Wednesday, 29. Messrs. White, Whitely, &c., cleared off in the afternoon. Mr. Orton36 remains.

Thursday, 30. The settlement and my premises in particular crowded all day with Englishmen to wait on Mr. Busby. Interruption, interruption.

Friday, 31. Writing amidst incalculable interruption.

Saturday, 1 June. Writing all day except when interrupted. Poor Brother Hobbs and family arrived in the eveng. at 9 o'clock from Hokianga on his way to Tongatapu; every part of the premises filled. Deposited Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs and children in the Bee Hive.

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Sunday, 2. Fine. The Sacrament administered to the largest english congregation yet assembled here. After dinner Messrs. Orton, Hobbs and Morgan accompanied to Kororarika. We met but few persons.

Monday, 3. All the morng. empd. writing. At noon Messrs. King, Shepherd, Kemp, Chapman, Wilson, Clarke and Davis arr'd. After dinner commenced business; determined that Mr. Chapman should take the school, as Mrs. Brown's health continued the same. In the Eveng. held our monthly prayer meeting, more than 40 persons present including children. Mr. Orton gave the address.

Tuesday, 4. Fine. At Committee business all day. Mr. Shepherd ordered to the Kerikeri to reside, to occupy the place of Mr. Chapman. Others to the Southd. Ship arr'd from the Colony for Liverpool to sail in the morning; in a leaky state. Forwarded our English letters.

Wednesday, 5. Fine. Closed my letters for the Colony and delivered them to Cap. Wright, who at length sailed after a long needless delay in the Bay. Visited Koropu who is exceedingly ill and very desirous of persons to see him. Report that Titore was killed at Tauranga.

Thursday, 6. Fine. Mr. and Mrs. Hobbs embarked on board the New Zealander for Tonga. They appeared much cast down. Rawiri went to Kororarika to learn the truth of the news which arrived last night. Titore not killed, but Kuri,37 a Chief of the Rarawa, from the neighbourhood of the North Cape; could not obtain the particulars.

Friday, 7. Messrs. Brown, Fairburn, Orton, Morgan and White left for the Waimate, and most of the natives went up the Kauakaua to attend the Hahunga. The Cutter Taeapo belonging to the natives arrived from the seat of war; news confirmed.

Saturday, 8. Fine. Rec'd two letters from Mr. Tapsel, a flax agent residing in Maketu, the man who opposed us so strenuously last year when at Tauranga with the natives. At the latter part of his first letter, which was written just at the conclusion of making peace, he says, “My people bid me write to you to send them a Missionary; if you should approve of that I hope you will send one to Tauranga, Wakatane, and the River Thames; as it would be the means of keeping peace amongst them.”

This is the testimony of one who has been living several years amongst this people, and has tried the power of his abilities, and the strength of his European knowledge in keeping this war in agitation, but has found it ineffectual. What he expresses in his page 318 letter I doubt not but is his sincere opinion that the influence of Missionaries will alone stay this destructive work. In the course of a few days after peace had been concluded, some of the Rarawa were surprised and killed by some in connexion with Tauranga and immediately involved all in the renewal of hostilities. In the afternoon went to the Kerikeri for the purpose of spending the Sabbath with the brethren there.

Sunday, 9. Cloudy. Service morng. and afternoon. The weather so threatening could not venture out.

Monday, 10. Heavy rain. In the afternoon the weather cleared up.

Tuesday, 11. Fine. Returned to Paihia. Much time occupied in hearing news from the Southd. and conversing upon the propriety of a station to the Southd.

Wednesday, 12. Weather very unsettled. A thunderstorm accompanied by unusual heavy rain. A ship arrived at Kororarika; a boat's crew pulling all day with letters from Mr. Busby for the Cap. of the Vessel.

Thursday, 13. Showers occly. My brother and family went to Tepuna for a few days by way of a change.

Friday, 14. Awoke at 4 by our room being full of smoke; all in a state of alarm in an instant; found the skirting board in the sitting room on fire which must have been burning for some hours. Had the house been constructed as most of those in the land, it had been in all probability consumed, as we have no means of extinguishing a blaze except with our buckets. This is another amongst innumerable evidences of the all watchful care of our Father who is in Heaven. He who keepeth Israel slumbereth not neither sleepeth. The Ship William arrived from Port Jackson in a leaky state. News that Tohitapu was very ill inland. Met our Christian natives in the eveng.; called their attention to consider seriously their baptismal vow; and to remember they were examples to the people round about, and that they must so let their light shine before men, that they may see their good works and glorify their Father who is in Heaven.

Sunday, 16. Fine. Baptised the Infant of Hemi. The natives unusually heavy and inattentive at service. In the afternoon 2 Captains and the wife of one of them at the Chapel; they afterwards remained tea. Iri one of Tohitapu's wives came with the report of his death, wailing and snivelling at a great rate. I could not for a long time discover whether he was actually dead or not, by any question I proposed, until I asked her what we had better send for him. She replied, some sugar. Koropu sent for me to see him; poor fellow he is fast approaching his end.

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Monday, 17. Cloudy. Appearance of abundance of rain. My brother returned from Tepuna; all well. Tohitapu was brought into the Settlement by his two wives, who had been obliged to carry him by turns; he was not dead but very much reduced, and his countenance changed. The William, of Liverpool, sailed for England.

Tuesday, 18. Old Hepetahi and numbers of others came to see Mr. Busby; occupied till past noon with them. In the afternoon I baptised Koropu, who appeared fast declining, but evidencing a strong faith in the pardon of his sins through the merits of his Redeemer's blood; our Christian natives were present. I afterwards buried a seaman who died last night, belonging to the Governor Philip. Wakaria died up the river; a fine young man, and nephew of Tohitapu. His widow and two children came into the settlement desiring to remain here. Had a long conversation with Tohitapu, but found him more disposed to speak upon the affairs of Tauranga and Titore's ill success, than upon the state of his own hope. A number of the natives came to me in the eveng. for a few words.

Wednesday, 19. Fine. Eight canoes came from Waitangi to convey Mr. Busby's things thither; they behaved remarkably well. Tuwakatere &c. came over from Kororarika to see Tohitapu, much crying at his place. Went with Mr. Busby to Waitangi respecting his land. The natives well behaved.

Thursday, 20. Remarkably fine. The Byron anchored in the night from the East Cape. The natives she had carried up had been landed and others had come up on a visit here also two of the Europeans left there by Cap. Black of the Elizabeth, the third preferred remaining. The acct. they give is that their Capn. had no reason for leaving them, and that no violence had been offered to them on acct. of the natives who had been taken away by him. The circumstances considered by us on the 22 of Apl. in a special committee. The depositions of these men will be taken by Mr. Busby and forwarded to England and the Colony. This is another instance of the violent proceeding of the Whaling Captains.

Called on Tohitapu; he appeared something better and expressed a desire that some of us should converse with him upon the nature of the world to come. Had a long conversation with an old lady who had just come up from Maketu. She had been with the contending parties for several months; her acct. was particularly interesting.

The Waitangi mob came and were very importunate for their yesterday's work. After a good deal of small talk they consented to proceed in conveying Mr. Busby's things upon the understanding that a good mess of stir about should be provided for them. In the page 320 afternoon Pomare and party came to pay their respects to Mr. Busby, but he declined to see them on account of a small vessel38 which Pomare had seized from a European without any right, and had not restored it; engaged talking with them until I was hoarse; gave them on our own account a mess of stir about, to shew them that we did not enter into Mr. B.'s political discussions and that what observations we had to make upon the seizure of the vessel in question, was merely as his friends. Pomare remained till past sunset. In the evening rec'd a note from Watonga, stating that “Te Ruatara” (the name they give to Captain Clendon) had killed 3 pigs belonging to him and he wished to know if it would not be proper to kill his cows in return. Sent him word that I would meet him at Cap. Clendon's in the morng. and investigate the matter.

Friday, 21. Fine. Went up to Captain Clendon's place. Watonga soon made his appearance with his people; entered into the affair with Cap. C., &c. It did not appear that any pigs had been killed by the evidence of some of the same party residing on the premises; the Plaintiff was accordingly non suited to his considerable comfort. Tirirau and Kiwikiwi sat upon the bench.

The natives more particularly enquiring after truth came in the eveng. Rawiri mentioned to me with much concern that Tohitapu had observed that it was owing to their Karakia that he did not recover; that he and Matiu had been in attendance three days to see him and instruct him, and he was no better but rather grew worse. I told him that as his words had been rejected by the poor man, he had better desist from speaking to him any further, unless he should express some desire.

Saturday, 22. At daylight the sky became suddenly overcast, and commenced heavy rain. Did not visit Tohitapu today. Rain continued. Much disappointed in not going up the Kauakaua to hold service tomorrow. Blowing a gale from Northwest at sunset with heavy rain.

Sunday, 23. Wind more round, fine morning. At sunrise went up the river, arrived by 10 o'clock; met the natives, who were in expectation of some one's arrival; held a pleasant service with them. They had much to say about Te Uarahi having died and after taking a survey of the Reinga39 returned to deliver his account. They asked me if I thought he had actually died. I said I had little page 321 doubt but had Wiro40 admitted him into the regions below that he could have been kept there. However the news this man has to date has certainly created much conversation upon these subjects. Called at Otuihu on my way home, but few person there. Held service in the evening with the natives. Koropu departed this life, I just in the sure and certain hope of a blessed immortality in glory.

Monday, 24. Heavy rain this morng. Strong wind through the day with frequent showers. Several natives in the eveng., Matiu and others, this lad in a very pleasing state.

Tuesday, 25. Fine. Some of the Na te poro who came up in the Byron came over to see those residing in the settlement, who had been brought up by Cap. Black; those residing with us bid them welcome and spoke of their having been preserved by the Missionaries. Rewa and Hakiro came over to see Tohitapu and Mr. Busby, to weep with the former and to receive blankets from the latter; all in the way of business. The boys employed fencing.

Wednesday, 26. Sually. Went up to the Kerikeri, and returned by sunset. Very cold.

Thursday, 27. Fine. Attending to the boys. Took my family up to Cap. Clendons for an airing.

Friday, 28. Fine. Writing. Attending to my natives at their fencing. In the eveng., Pita, Pohe, Ngo and Unu came to obtain a little instruction.

Sunday, 30. Fine. The Adml. Gifford schr. arr'd from the Colony; no letters. The Trammer from the Thames; some of the principal Chiefs in that Quarter dead after short illness. After service went to Kororarika, but few disposed to draw near, tho considerable number over here; enquired into the cause of their keeping aloof; they replied that they were contemplating another expedition to the Southd. to Tauranga, in consequence of the death of Kuri, the Chief who was killed by the Na te awa. I told them that Satan was a hard master; two bodies of men had been down, several had been killed without accomplishing their design, and their property was also consumed for the purpose of carrying on the War. They acknowledged the truth of what was said, but that they must adhere to the ancient custom of obtaining revenge.

Monday, 1 July. Fine. At sunrise on the way to Kerikeri to the Quarterly committee; arr'd in good time and commenced business after dinner. In the eveng. prayer meeting at Mr. Bakers.

Tuesday, 2. Fine. All day at work; several important points for consideration.

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Wednesday, 3. Fine. Concluded by noon, returned by sunset. Mr. Wilson we found seriously ill with an attack of the ague. The news of the day, Mr. Polack stript of the whole of his property by small party of Natives from Waiomio; The assigned reason, that he swore at them. This person is one of those free and independent men, full of threats and great boastings as to his treatment towards these people; and as he had expressed himself thus to me upon one occasion, my sympathy was not very great.

Thursday, 4. Mr. Brown and I went up to see Cap. Kent to obtain information from him, as to the rivers and numbers of natives on the Coast; rec'd very satisfactory accounts. Mr. Wilson better.

Friday, 5. Cloudy. Engaged with the boys fencing. Called on Tohitapu who is very weak. In the afternoon went over with Mr. Fairburn to see Mr. Polack who had sent a note requesting a call; found him in much disconcolation, having lost every fraction of his property. In the eveng. met about a dozen of our natives for conversation.

Saturday, 6. Rain most of the day. In the eveng. Toe and Kotua his wife came for private conversation; much pleased with them.

Sunday, 7. Showery through the day. A number of European strangers in the afternoon.

Monday, 8. Fine. Messrs. Brown, Fairburn, Busby and I rode to Waimate with 30 boys to whom we had given a holiday to attend a Hahunga which is to take place about 3 miles more in the interior. All the families well.

Tuesday, 9. Cloudy. Rode to Hihi's Pa in company with Messrs. Clarke, Brown and Fairburn. Pomare was busily engaged in completing the line of potatoes which were brought out for the feast; he with some others of distinction did not take any notice of us for some time; at length they came forward and were very civil and handed out some baskets of potatoes and a pig. In the afternoon went out to see the Ploughers,41 two parties, a pleasing sight, the first I had witnessed in the land. I tried my hand and found it more easy than I had anticipated.

Wednesday, 10. Appearance of rain. Rode in company with Messrs. Busby, Brown and Fairburn to see the Natives, who we found more at leisure. Pomare entered upon the question of Kings boat and appeared determined to keep possession. Rain commenced which obliged us to retreat. My fellow travellers returned to Paihia page 323 in the midst of the rain; not deeming it prudent I remained for the morrow. Heavy rain in the eveng. Mr. Orton arr'd about 8 o'clock from Hokianga in a dreadful plight from the rain and dirty state of the road; had nearly taken up his abode in the bush.

Thursday, 11. Rain all night, but cleared off about 8 o'clock. In the afternoon rode to Paihia. Tohitapu much worse; he had been expressing much wish to see me; understood that he was under considerable fear as to future consequences.

Friday, 12. Went to see poor Tohi; much reduced; I endeavoured to speak to him, but he was either insensible or indifferent to what I had to say. Poor miserable creature; no one regards him now, and he laying in a wretched shed which our boys have put up for him to protect him from the weather.

Saturday, 13. Marupo came to see Tohitapu, who was laying in an insensible state. Several strangers in the course of the day; they held a consultation as to where they should deposit his remains when dead, and proposed to remove him to Waimangaro, a little river a short distance from us. We objected to this as the Cows would enter the wood in the neighbourhood and subject us to many difficulties; it was concluded to convey him to Wangai. Dr. Ross, an old gentleman residing at Waitangi who has suffered much loss of late from the ill conduct of the natives in that neighbourhood, came and expressed a desire that some assistance might be afforded him to remove his things as he was afraid to remain there, and all the people were now absent. As the Doctor had not any means of assistance beyond us, Mr. Fairburn took a boat's crew and cleared off all his goods and chattels in a few minutes. We learnt afterwards that as the boats left the beach, a party of natives landed at a short distance from the Doctors residence, and expressed their anger in breaking some portion of the house, and clearing away the few little things remaining about.

Sunday, 14. Fine. After service learnt that our old friend Tohitapu was just dead. Went to see the assembled party; all sat in silence, excepting a few preparing to tangi; a sad spectacle, without God and without hope. The poor old man had been removed and laid in state, with his head decorated as in former days, with feathers &c. They enquired if they might not perform their usual ceremonies today, in crying and cutting. We offered a few words and told them they were no strangers to our wishes, and that we could not permit any uproar in the settlement; however as soon as we had retired they commenced firing which was soon stopt by taking away their artillery. They concluded to take the page 324 corpse to Wangai beyond the reach of the Cattle; gave a word to all. Weather exceedingly cold, wind south.

Monday, 15. Fine. Much firing through the night. About 8 o'clock, Marupo and the Mataraurau came firing, and finding that the Tupapaku was removed and on the way up the river, they followed and at length brought it back, and passed on to Waitangi on the opposite of the river. There was for some time there a prospect of disturbance but it passed off quietly. Drew up poor Tohi's canoes as they had been given to us many months since, and the Slaves were brought into the settlement to preserve them from violence. The love and affection of this people is very manifest as on the present occasion; while this poor man was yet alive none came to see him to administer to his wants, but now he is dead, they are even fighting for his body, and all that appertaineth to him. Learnt that many had given it as their opinion that the old man ought not to have been removed from this place, as he had resided so long with us. In the eveng. Pumuka and others came.

Tuesday, 16. Fine clear weather, very cold. After dinner went over to Heke at Waitangi; saw him and his party; gave them a good reprimand for their conduct to Dr. Ross. They were very civil before we left and we parted better friends. Learnt that Mr. Polack was very profuse in abusive speeches because we did not exert ourselves more to his satisfaction in the case of the New Zealanders v. Polack.

Wednesday, 17. Fine. After dinner went up to the Kerikeri with two boats to fetch Mr. Chapman and things; cold journey.

Thursday, 18. Fine. In great bustle, clearing off Mr. Chapman and all his goods and chattels in order to take charge of the English school at Paihia.

Friday, 19. The Karere arr'd from Wangaroa laden with corn and potatoes. Rec'd a note from Capn. Clendon stating the indisposition of Mrs. C.; took Mrs. W up to see her; remained all day. Urumihia arrived from the Thames, had a good deal of conversation with her and her friends. Several natives with me in the eveng.

Saturday, 20. Some canoes landed at Kororarika from the Thames. Several natives came to lodge a complaint against some stray cows which had been near the place where Wakarie's bones were deposited.

Sunday, 21. Wind N.E., appearance of a gale. Full congregation of natives. After service, Mr. Orton and I went to Kororarika, about 50 persons present. Walked afterward to Warerahi and Rewa; poor fellows, could not enter into our views.

Monday, 22. A Gale with heavy rain. Anxious concerning page 325Karere which was a good deal exposed and riding uncomfortably; could not communicate with her.

Tuesday, 23. The gale very severe through the night; the Karere on shore at the Kotikotinga; she had parted her cable; we were enabled to get her off without damage. The bay in great commotion. Several of the natives males and females came to me in the eveng.

Wednesday, 24. Fine. Writing most of the day. Learnt the adventure of a blister. Some days since application was made for a blister, which was given accordingly, but the patient not feeling disposed to apply it, the husband, feeling that it would be wasted, put it on himself; we have had instances of a similar nature.

Thursday, 25. Rain. News this morning that the body of Tohitapu had been stolen from Waitangi and taken to Wangai by the Roroa.

Friday, 26. Fine. Mr. Orton the Wesleyan commissioner took his departure for the Colony. Warerahi and Rewa came over from Kororarika to speak upon the subject of forming a mission in the Thames; proposed to accompany us if we would proceed at once, but as it is now winter and the rains set in we think it prudent to wait for a short period. In the eveng. met the baptised natives.

Saturday, 27. Heavy rain all day. Wind from North.

Sunday, 28. Fine. Number of natives from Kororarika to attend service; a large congregation. Administered the sacrament to the natives. Obliged to turn two back, owing to their recent inattentive conduct, Hoani and Ripeka. Mr. Orton not being able to sail yesterday, came on shore again for the day.

Monday, 29. Fine. Mr. Orton sailed.

Tuesday, 30. Fine. Natives at fencing. In the evening several came for conversation.

Wednesday, 31. Fine. Natives employed fencing. Hauhau talking of reclaiming possession of a small spot of ground sold to the Society.

Thursday, 1 August. Fine. No particular interruption.

Friday, 2. Several natives come to me in the evening. Patarike under serious enquiry.

Saturday, 3. Ten years today since I first came to the land; a season of many changes, trials and perplexities, but surely this promise has in all cases been verified to us that as thy day so shall thy strength be. The work goes on and prospers notwithstanding the opposition we meet with. Not only does our influence extend, but the way appears opening for extending our borders. In the afternoon went to Tepuna. Nearly met with a serious accident; the step page 326 of the mast gave way, and the heel of it had well nigh gone through the bow of the boat.

Sunday, 4. Heavy rain. In the afternoon the rain cleared up. Went to Wairoa, saw a few natives there. Clear evening. Much pleased with Mr. King's treatment toward his children; they are very orderly, and are brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

Monday, 5. Fine. Returned to Paihia.

Tuesday, 6. Fine morng. Before noon heard that a vessel had arr'd at Rangihoua with Mr. Yate and Mrs. Busby. Numbers of letters &c. Went over immediately with Mr. Busby.

Wednesday, 7. Fine. Went up with Mr. Brown and my brother to the vessel; saw Mr. Yate, colony in sad wretched state. Wind very strong.

Thursday, 8. Fine. Boys fencing. The Rarawa returned from the Southd. to Kororarika with the heads of their dead.

Friday, 9. Fine. Several natives came to me in the eveng.; an interesting meeting. Tepainga gave an account of the last moments of her husband, and spoke the feelings and desires of her own mind with great clearness. Horoke spoke privately of his baptism, felt much encouraged. Visited Wehi, who has been long sick; in an enquiring state; her relatives had been speaking of taking her away which she resisted, saying that she came here for the purpose of dying in the midst of the Europeans, and it was her determination to do so.

Saturday, 10. Fine weather. Rawiri brought a hoe and an axe to purchase a book of the new translation;42 all are desirous of obtaining them. Received a pleasing letter from Unu. Horoki came to-day to converse.

Sunday, 11. Fine. Went up the Kauakaua. Called at Otuihu on the way. Kiwikiwi and Urumihia more than usually attentive; between 70 and 80 at Hiamoe's place; there was no appearance of anyone working; a pleasant day.

Monday, 12. Fine. Went up to Kerikeri to attend a special meeting at the request of Mr. Baker, to alter his appointment to the Southd. A full meeting, which after much consultation was acceded page 327 to. Several members, consisting of Messrs. Brown, Baker, Fairburn, Morgan, Wilson and myself, requested to proceed to the Thames on a survey, in order to ascertain the most desirable situation for a Station.

Tuesday, 13. Fine. Returned home.

Wednesday, 14. Fine. The boys at fencing. A party commenced digging in preparation for potatoes. Sad waste of time to be labouring with a spade, in comparison of the use of the plough.

Thursday, 15. Fine. Preparing ground.

Friday, 16. Boys fencing and digging. In the eveng. a number of natives for instruction.

Saturday, 17. Fine. Toe came in the eveng. Our natives so urgent for instruction that it requires much consideration how to act with them. Obliged to send some away who came for a single word. May the Lord abundantly water from on high this garden he hath planted.

Sunday, 18. Fine. Very full congregation. In the afternoon went to Kororarika; the largest assembly of natives and many Chiefs, whose attention was surprisingly good considering where we were. A good report in the eveng. from the various districts.

Monday, 19. Fine. Rode with Mr Wilson to Waimate; all well.

Tuesday, 20. Fine. Rode with Mr. Davis and Mr. Wilson to Taiamai to examine the land proposed for my children; found a very good piece free from stones. Much gratified. Old More43 in good spirits, tho poorly.

Wednesday, 21. Ret'd to Paihia.

Thursday, 22. Boys planting. In the eveng. the Fortitude arrived from the Colony; but few letters.

Friday, 23. Fine. Commenced an oven at the school house. Rec'd one box from England by way of the Colony. In the eveng. several of the natives came to converse.

Saturday, 24. Cloudy. In the morng. at work at the oven. In the eveng. a large fire at Kororarika; the third within these few nights.

Sunday, 25. A gale from N.E. No service in the afternoon in consequence of the rain.

Monday, 26. Heavy gale and constant rain. Writing all day.

Tuesday, 27. Fine. All at work on the oven; finished it by sunset. In the eveng. a pleasing but profitable hour with the natives; a goodly number. Many I trust earnestly enquiring after truth. Heard today that it was Gray's house on fire, and that all were intoxicated.

page 328

Wednesday, 28. A deluge of rain during the night, an incessant torrent, cleared up at sunrise.

Thursday, 29. Fine. All planting. In the eveng. assembled the baptised natives.

Friday, 30. The state of most of our settlement natives very pleasing; many urgent in enquiries, and come by day and night.

Sunday, 1 September. A numerous congregation. Baptised an infant of Hamura. Administered the Sacrament to 15 Europeans. Walked to Waitangi; but a sorry attention. Toua from Te Puke and others also in a pleasing state. Poor Wehe in a comfortable frame of mind.

Monday, 2. Natives from Waitangi to settle with Mr. Busby for a raupo house; a perpetual worry till past noon; unable to settle to anything; made Marupo hand over a fee for acting as interpreter between him and Mr. B.; he delivered it with a good grace. A lawsuit to determine between Taha and some relatives of a little girl living in the settlement for having kanga'd her, having connected her name in some foolish way with some food; fined him a hoe.

From the gradual decline of Wehe, and considering the great earnestness she had manifested for instruction, and joy in spiritual conversation for a length of time, and her apparent delight in prospect of a blessed immortality, we deemed it proper that she should be admitted a member of the Church of Christ by baptism. We accordingly assembled our little Christian band this afternoon for that purpose, and gave unto her the right hand of fellowship. The service was very pleasing, and when I recollected the life she once led, I could not but praise the Lord and exclaim, Surely this is a brand plucked from the burning. She seemed particularly strong and gave the responses with great clearness and evident feeling. All have expressed much gratification and satisfaction who have conversed with her. Her history is interesting. It is now about 9 years when her younger sister Piri came to live with us; but in those days there was much difficulty in keeping any girls, owing to the influence of the Shipping. After a short period, Wehe, who was a companion of those who frequented the Ships, came and took her sister away against all remonstrance, and we saw nothing more of them until about 15 months since, when the younger applied to be received into the house, stating that she was weary of her sad, depraved mode of living; a trial was given her, when her elder sister made application to be admitted into the family. She had been unwell page 329 for several months, and asked for permission to come and die amongst us; she knew she should not recover. Her deportment was good, and her attention to school and general instruction very great. She would speak to those around her tho in great quietness and reprove any impropriety she might observe; she would invariably give a good account of the sermon and shewed that our labour was not in vain, or her profession mere idle words. While her strength would admit of it she was very diligent and has frequently been required by Mrs. W. to lay aside any work in which she might be engaged.

This is an outline of the character of this young woman, who has long been in the school of vice, and now fast approaching the verge of the grave. This is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our eyes. Many are in a very pleasing state. Several of the Natives come to speak during the day as opportunity offers upon spiritual matters.

Tuesday, 3. Fine. Went up to the Kerikeri to a special committee; concluded business in good time. It was determined for a party to go down and look for a situation in the Thames, and also to erect some raupo houses. Ret'd by 11 o'clock. Found Mr. Wilson seriously ill. Great disturbance in the morng. with Marupo on account of Taha who is a forward youth and incautious in his speech.

Wednesday, 4. Cloudy, occl. rain. Boys planting. Preparation for expedition.

Thursday, 5. Fine. Boys very diligent at their work today.

Friday,6. Several natives came to me in the eveng.

Saturday, 7. Cloudy. Boys emp'd digging a drain in the ground behind. Pi came over for the papers of his vessel; a sad fellow; he is now going to the Southd. to see the state of the Natives at Tauranga. Toe, Kotua, and Horoki came for a few words. May the Lord feed their souls with the sincere milk of the Word,that they may grow thereby.

Thursday, 8. Rain all day. Toe and Kotua baptised by the following names: Aparahama, and Hera. The former is younger brother to Rawiri; the latter is from Rotorua, about 250 miles to the Southd.; she has ever been desirous of instruction and has been the means of her husband remaining so close to us, as she would not remove from us, tho he has often urged it.

Monday, 9. Heavy rain all day. Emp'd writing.

Tuesday, 10. Showers through the day. In the evening several natives came to converse, but as I was much engaged, declined speaking with them; however Taui at length came, and looked page 330 with such apparent desire for a few words, that I could not turn him away. The poor youth expressed himself very pleasingly and with great earnestness for instruction; he said it was his desire to be given to the Lord, that he might be protected from the effects of Wiro, the native god, the author of all evil. I offered him some words of consolation and enjoined him to look to the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world. Old Aka44 this afternoon called me to him; he said we did not act kindly to him; he was lame, and could not come to us for instruction as others did and we passed by him continually without dropping a crumb by the way. Poor old man. I told him I was glad to find him enquiring after truth and assured him we would see him more frequently. An interesting old man and of noble rank.

Wednesday, 11. Heavy rain all day with short intervals. No work done.

Thursday,12. Fine. Mr. Brown and I went up to Cap. Clendon's on business.

Friday, 13. Fine. Dr. and Mrs. Ross in the eveng.

Saturday, 14. Fine. Interruptions all day with Europeans and natives. Mr. Baker arr'd with Temorenga; long conversation with More relative to his accompanying us on our expedition as he is well acquainted with the country and highly respected. A ship sailed up the Kerikeri river.

Sunday, 15. Fine. Went over to Kororarika in the morng.; very few attended; several came to look on but soon dispersed, except our regular party. Old Kaikohe present. Wai and Paikira came afterwards. This is a sad, tho important place.

Monday, 16. Rain through the day. An American ship arrived. Emp'd writing.

Tuesday, 17. Rough rainy night. Writing and answering calls all day.

Wednesday, 18. Rain in the night. Little appearance this morng. Rode to Waimate. Found all well.

Thursday, 19. Very fine. Rode to Manowenua in company with Messrs. Davis and Clarke. Went over the land proposed for my children; all pleased with it.

Friday, 20. Ret'd to Paihia. How little do we know what a day may bring forth. Some serious accidents had taken place. Edward had severely cut himself. Catherine had rec'd a cut in the head with a spade. Baby was very ill, and Cooper Mr. Busby's servant had page 331 absconded, having well provided himself with necessaries from his master's stores, and I believe with some of mine. Mr. and Mrs. Baker in the settlement for change of air.

Saturday, 21. Showers. Went to the Karaka. Mr. Busby in much trouble, his workmen leaving and the natives stealing their property; the prospect of a long residence with us.

Sunday, 22. Fine. Went up to Waikari; much oppressed at the hardness of their hearts. Endeavoured to collect a few and command their attention to a few words, but could not.

Monday, 23. Fine. Preparation for our expedition. Painting boat, fitting masts, boxes, &c., &c.

Tuesday, 24. Fine. Went to Waitangi to see Mr. Busby's chimneys. Showers through the day.

Wednesday, 25. Fine. An American ship arrived; a merchant vessel; not much news.

Thursday, 26. Painting the boat. The American Captain on shore; too dear, could not do any business with him.

Friday, 27. Fine. Went over to Kororarika to settle a question of land which belonged to Tohitapu now sold to Mr. Polack, but opposed by Moka. Matangi45 from Hokianga and in the morng. he appears in a very enquiry state. In the eveng. met several of the natives.

Saturday, 28. Preparing for our expedition.

Sunday, 29. Fine. In the afternoon went over to Kororarika. Grandees attended service. A number of sailors staggering about to the amusement and ridicule of the natives; but I lament to say that this people are acquiring a relish for this great evil. I had a long conversation with Moka whose heart is as hard as a stone. In the eveng. we heard that an English sailor had been stabbed by an American; both intoxicated. Oh the work of Satan, he rages on every side.

Monday, 30. Finished the preparation for the boat. The Ameriican Captain came on shore, and as I told him his prices were beyond our rate, he replied that we had better make our own.

Tuesday, 1 October. The ship Surrey arrived from the Thames where she has been for these last nine months procuring a cargo of timber, bound for the Colony. Parekahu redeemed from her master for a pair of blankets and an iron pot. Met our Christian natives in the eveng.

Wednesday, 2. Fine. Mr. Busby and I went on board the Surreypage 332 to learn the news from the Thames. One of Mr. G. Brown's boat's crew had been killed at one of the settlements in the Thames; the excuse given was that Pouaka a youth who had been brought up by me had been killed by the natives here. This report had been conveyed to them. I was grieved to hear these particulars as it shows the jealous state in which they live. Passed on to Kororarika respecting Mr. Polack's land; long hindrance; returned without accomplishing our object. Saw Mr. Trap;46 much pleased with him, and with the ingenuity displayed in his house.

Thursday, 3. Fine. Writing. Met our natives in the evening.

Friday, 4. Writing amidst perpetual interruption.

Saturday, 5. Fine. Settling accounts.

Sunday, 6. Fine. Hot weather. Went up to Waikari wishing to give them another trial; people inanimate. Wiwia and Tu very obstinate and would not come near. After a considerable time and many attempts found them more attentive; they are in a sad pitiable state, and consider they pay me a great compliment in listening to the sound of the Gospel.

Monday, 7. By 8 o'clock left for the Waimate; 4 in number; a pleasant ride; commenced business after dinner.

Tuesday, 8. Wind from eastd. At close business all day.

Wednesday, 9. Weary with business. Rode to Titirangi.

Thursday, 10. Fine. Returned to Paihia, pleasant ride. Mr. Fairburn very indisposed. Two whalers arr'd. Kekeao47 and several others came with pigs and potatoes to celebrate the wedding of his son with Ripeka, who had long been denominated a child of ours, in as much as she had lived with us from a child.

Friday, 11. A gale from N.E. Application made for the marriage of Tapahi and Parekahu, also Tamati with Ripeka. This latter match we did not approve of; the youth was so thoroughly indolent and a professor of religion.

Saturday, 12. Gale continues with rain. Nothing particular.

Sunday, 13. Wind changed during the night. Fine morng. No strangers at service.

Monday, 14. Hindered through the day in hearing the overtures of the poor swain and his friends in his behalf to celebrate the marriage, but tho I found it useless to withhold consent, yet met considerable opposition from the boys generally; however as this young lady has been so closely beset by suitors, no less than four at one page 333 time, and every opportunity afforded to two of them, who had presented their claims by threats and persuasion for the last three years, on the plea of being relatives, we concluded after much consultation to celebrate the ceremony in the morng. This appeared to give dissatisfaction to the Natives in the Settlement and many expressions were thrown out that opposition would be offered and a seizure made of the bride elect; but as we had endeavoured to accommodate all parties, and afforded them the means of stating their lawful objections why these two persons should not be joined together in holy matrimony, we felt we were wrong in allowing these Maori customs to prevail any longer with us; and as there were a youth and a damsel, both of my family, redeemed slaves, who had given general satisfaction, we concluded to celebrate both at the same time; accordingly notice was given.

Tuesday, 15. Fine. The eventful morng. Much whispering to know if the wedding was to take place. A great difficulty to obtain rings, but accomplished at last as one of the Bridegrooms appeared to possess an assortment. No work attempted to be done by any in the Settlement; all sitting in groups. The school bell rung at 9 o'clock; all on the alert, but again sat down. Two boats landed; business with Mr. Busby; waited long, but at length obliged to request a suspension of their conference as we had business of great moment to transact, and should require the settlement to be cleared of strangers, lest the boys should consider that we had taken an unfair advantage of them; and moreover, as in all probability there might be some little disturbance, we were not willing that any persons should be present, not belonging to us. I found Ripeka in considerable fear of consequences; she requested a pair of trousers, as her clothes would be torn off in the scuffle. About 11 we conducted the party to the Chapel, strongly guarded by the Europeans in anything but wedding attire, as not only the garments of the Bride in question, but even our own would be in danger of being torn. On our way Puariri, one of the rejected suitors, leaped over the fence in full preparation for fighting, naked; we were obliged to be strong and keep him off. I passed on with Ripeka, who could scarcely walk through fear. The ceremony was immediately commenced by Mr. Brown, as it was needful that we should be at liberty to act as circumstances might require. Puariri soon appeared in front of the Chapel, but was kept in check until the ceremony was over. As soon however as she appeared at the back of the Chapel on her way home, she was seized by some of my boys who had stolen round for that purpose; a rush was instantly made to the page 334 spot, where we found that the boys were for the most part against us. However we rescued the young lady, and had her conveyed into Mr. Fairburn's house more dead than alive. A second rush was made upon Kekeao and Pana which had well nigh been serious. After all was over, we were enabled to find out who were for us and who were against us, and grieved to observe some who had been 8 and 10 years with us. In the course of the day we learnt that it had been their intention to have killed the girl, tho a Chief's daughter, had they obtained the victory, and one wicked fellow, a slave, had actually caught her head, and was in the act of strangling her as we arrived to her rescue. I received a few scratches on the face, also Mr. Fairburn, but the lady was safe. In the course of the evening I sent a dismissal to three of the ringleaders who were amongst my own boys, and a desire that all disaffected should also remove.

Wednesday, 16. Fine. Little or no work done. Hoari sent repeated messages to see him, but would not; at length Puariri came, and expressed a strong desire that I should see him. We met him in the Chapel, and after a long conversation ordered two to quit, the rest to go or stay as they felt disposed. All very low in consequence of the conduct of these youths. The character of this people never more clearly unfolded to view; of gratitude they possess not a spark.

Thursday, 17. Fine. The boys went up the Kauakaua to plant. Occupied in preparation for the Southd.

Friday, 18. Fine. Taha and Puwenua, two of the Rebels, came to fetch their things, were very insolent. These are two redeemed lads, and one of them has lived with me for the last 8 or 9 years, and one of the first in the school.

Saturday, 19. Fine. Boys returned from the Kauakaua. Emp'd in preparation for my departure.

Sunday, 20. After service went to Te Puke; much gratified with this little congregation. News of a party coming against us on account of Parekahu having been given in marriage to Tapahi.

Monday, 21. Fine. Tareha came over to us. Much occupied in preparation for departure in the morng. Eveng. looked forbidding, did not put my things in the boat.

Tuesday, 22. At break of day appearance better; boys placing things in the boat. At 8.20 having taken leave of my family &c., and our natives, we made sail48 with the wind at N.W. which allowed page 335 us to lay out clear of Tapeka. Breeze continued favourable and did not increase as we had apprehended. At 11.40 rounded Cape Brett; the sea perfectly smooth. A steady breeze and good run. At 5.30 entered Wananake. A reef of rocks runs out some distance from the North head in N.E. direction of which it is needful to take particular care. We passed further up than formerly. No sign of inhabitant. The scenery very beautiful, but the river shoal, fit only for very small vessels. Pitched our four tents among the bushes; dined; held evening service, and retired to rest early, rather tired, the boats having been previously anchored in the river, ready for a move at break of day. The sky was beautifully clear, giving us every hope of a fine day.

Wednesday, 23. The owls and other nocturnal birds croaking during the night. Slept well, except occasionally woke by moschettos. At daylight all under way; light air from the Northd.; passed comfortably on to Tutukaka to breakfast. Assembled the boys in the shade and held morning service. At 10 moved on, and at 2 close to Te Wara; breeze shifted to N.W. at 5; pulled into Mangawai by dusk; the breakers at the entrance. Much care required to secure the boats owing to the great stones. Our tents soon put in order. Dined and retired early.

Thursday, 24. Fine. All in motion at daylight, and by sunrise pulled out, and with pleasant Breeze from the Nth. passed on to Omaha, our favourite spot. Found it as agreeable a retreat as formerly; determined to remain the day to adjust our things, and send the boys for a stock of fern root and fish; some in quest of pigeons. Our sportsmen soon returned, one having lost his flint, the other having spilt his shot in the bush. Replenished their stock and started afresh. The lads returned early with 10 pigeons and a large collection of fine fish, which occupied them till dark to cook as sea stock. Dined at 6 o'clock on kahawai, which was exceedingly fine, and plum pudding. Had our boxes and ourselves comfortably put in order, and were much refreshed, and everything reembarked preparatory to an early start in the morning; the boys also appeared well satisfied, a very important point. Assembled all to prayers about 5 o'clock, and at 10 retired to rest. The evening cloudy, appearance of rain and wind from the Northd. Namus and moschettos trying and vexatious.

Friday, 25. Mr. Morgan called us up before 3 o'clock, telling us it was a fine morng. and little wind. As the moon had not yet set we concluded it was daylight, and all hurried up. The sky looked dark and hazy, and a few gusts of wind seemed to indicate an page 336 approaching gale, as it passed over the hills and amongst the trees. We loosed from our pleasant retreat and were soon outside, where we found sufficient wind. As we drew near the point of land going into the Thames, the sea became irregular owing to the ebb tide and threatened to break on board, but we soon rounded and were immediately in smooth water. We continued on to Motu Kauwau49 a large island, landed in a fine bay, perfectly secure from wind. We pitched our tents, brought everything on shore and prepared for a Gale which was fast breaking upon us. The boys behaved well and our encampment soon appeared like a little town amongst the trees which protected us from the wind. The rain fell for two or three hours, when the wind shifted to S.S.E. and blew strong. The afternoon was cold, but by the assistance of a good fire at our tent doors we were very comfortable. No namus or moschettoes.

Saturday, 26. At first dawn of day was awoke by the sound of these sweet bell birds, their varied notes fill the woods, and continue till sunrise, when they cease. Fine clear morng. but the wind strong from the S.E. Could not move on our way. After breakfast we went to explore a river a little distance from us. We found sufficient water, and perfectly secure for any vessel, and a place which is highly important to know as a refuge in bad weather. Vast quantities of fine oysters growing to the rocks. In the eveng. we were thrown into considerable alarm owing to the absence of three of our boys who had gone with the rest in the morng. to forage for food. and had not returned; apprehensive lest they might have been climbing over the rocks after birds and fallen. One of the boys was Puhi, son of Rauroha, one of the principal chiefs here, who died a few months since. Had anything happened to this lad, all our hopes and views here would have been frustrated for a season, as the natives would have looked to us for satisfaction.

Sunday, 27. Fine. The three boys returned in the night; they had lost themselves. We felt very thankful to see them. On what a slender thread do all our joys and consolations here depend; how far concealed from our feeble sight are all future events; we know not what an hour may bring forth. My rest had been much disturbed through the night under the apprehension that mischief had befallen this lad, and that we should not therefore dare to proceed on our way. This might have been but was not permitted. The Lord is our Shepherd and our Guide.

At 10.30 assembled in a shady spot and held service; it was retired from the busy hum of man, for naught was heard but birds page 337 of sweet and varied note, skipping from branch to branch, as tho surveying the group of mortals who had landed on their isle, and had intruded upon the quiet of their abode; however they did not betray fear, and as we sang the praise of God and our Redeemer, their voice was also distinctly heard with ours, but I felt a kind of indescribable something as I viewed the ground on which we sat. For many succeeding years the neighbourhood hath been the seat of war in its most savage and infernal state; not content with killing but even limb from limb hath the foul demon taught to protract human misery by thus dividing asunder, and at times ere life has been extinct have they commenced the work of cannibalism. Doubtless this spot hath witnessed many scenes like this, but now I viewed as an earnest for good that the Lord had heard the prayers of His people, and that the place was consecrated by His presence. At sunset appearance of wind and rain; obliged to shift the position of some of the tents.

Monday, 28. Woke in the middle of the night by the barking of a dog. At first I thought that a party of strangers had landed, but as the wind was still strong, I concluded it must be a stray creature from the bush. Had some apprehensions respecting our stock of provision, as on our journey to Rotorua we lost all through these merciless intruders. After breakfast we crossed over to the South pt. of the Island to take bearings of the various islands, points, &c., &c., around us. Considerable difficulty in ascending the hills owing to the fern and shrubs, &c., with which it is covered; however our view was good, and I was enabled to take a sketch of the Islands and country around. Eveng. fine; wind more from the Westd.; launched the boats and put everything on board except our beds, in prospect of an early move.

Tuesday, 29. Cloudy and symptoms of strong wind. Determined to make the attempt to cross; shipped some water as we drew into the tide way, but the boys pulled well into Mahurangi by 1/4 past eight. Landed in a quiet bay to breakfast. After assembling our boys to our morng. service, we proceeded up the harbour to see Mr. G. D. Brown. We found him well and living in perfect quietness with about 30 of his natives; he gave us much information and furnished us with a more correct chart of this part of the Thames. We left this beautiful place about 3 for Wangaparaua, and passed over in 1 1/4 hour; the wind was strong, but we passed on comfortbly; we were some time finding a place where to land and pitch our tents, as the coast was very forbidding and stony. Hauled the boats on shore lest they should ground upon them in the night. Was page 338 obliged to lay down immediately on landing owing to severe headache, owing to a long fast and exposure to the sun.

Wednesday, 30. Cloudy. Wind scant; were therefore undetermined how to proceed. At high water pulled to windward, and finding the weather moderate and water smooth, we crossed over on the ebb tide, and by 11.20 landed in a small bay of the east side of Motu tapu. We here found a small party with Warekaua. As we came in sight they immediately began to prepare for defence, while the women and children ran off, but as the boats came nearer they knew us and discharged their pieces as a salute. We had some of their relations with us who had been on a visit with us to the Bay of Islands. After a long and dismal cry we had some conversation with them; they were going in an opposite direction to us. Before I left this spot I mounted the hill and took a view of the islands and their bearings, preparatory to correcting the chart. At 3.30 we took our departure, and landed in a small bay on Motu Ihu about 5. We had to contend with a rough sea for a short time, as the weather tide was making strong; but as we drew near to land we found it quiet and soon went to work upon our quarters for the night. Sent off a party to fish; they soon returned with a large quantity.

In passing amongst these islands with a boat it is highly expedient to consult the time of tide, as a sea is tossed up in a few moments; it is therefore more provident to pass along on the lee tide.

Thursday, 31. Cloudy, appearance of rain. As our distance was short, we intended to go today. We packed up at daylight, but our lads, whose independence cannot be exceeded, gave us to understand that we could not move without their assistance; we were consequently an hour and a half before we left the beach and six hours before we arrived at Mokoia,50 a distance of about 9 miles.—As the labour of pulling fell upon them, I did not feel disposed to express my displeasure, tho I had the misfortune to feel it. We at length arr'd in a small bason which had something romantic about it. The entrance was narrow, between rocks, overhung with small trees and shrubs. We here landed at Mokoia, famous in New Zealand history, the spot where about 12 years since stood the Pa of Hinaki,51 which was then taken by Hongi and very many put to death. The people page 339 in the Pa had at that time about 8 muskets, while every man of Ngapuhi was well provided with everything, fully equipped for the field. The land was now overgrown with firn and tupakihi bushes. No signs of an inhabitant could be observed in any direction. Part of a human skull lay on the ground close to us, which was more than half an inch thick; there were three deep cuts on it from a hatchet, most probably inflicted at the time of the general massacre.

The country around appeared very level for a great extent and the general report of the natives, for we could not examine far, is that it is of the same quality with that here, but it cannot be occupied by Europeans for a length of time, as there is no timber near the place. The river52 on which this place stands, runs up a long distance to within half a mile of Manakau,53 which empties itself on the western coast; it passes through Waikato.

Friday, 1 November. Cloudy, uncomfortable morning. As there did not appear anything to detain us here as we had no guide to Waikato, we concluded to proceed some distance on our way. As we arrived at the heads of the river, the wind had so increased that we were obliged to pull for a beach to windward for shelter. On our way we came suddenly amongst stones, when Mr. Fairburn's boat ran on one and stove a great hole. She filled immediately and was obliged to run on shore to prevent her sinking. This was a sad check to our proceedings. We made the best of our way to a beach about a mile distant to repair our damages. The fracture was near three feet in length. We pitched our tents under the impression that we should be detained till after Sunday. This beach, which is nearly a mile in length,54 is where Rangituke, son of old Tikoke, was killed about five years since. It was therefore interesting to us and our boys, who had the battle to fight over again with variations.

Saturday, 2. Very fine morning. Sea breeze set in about 10. Obliged to remain in an inactive state, as we could not proceed owing to the accident of yesterday. Mr. Fairburn occupied in repairing the boat, and I in putting a patch upon my trousers. Our little bark was finished in the afternoon, and as there was no paint we were obliged to substitute candlegrease to keep out the water. Had general wash of linen.

Sunday, 3. Very fine. No native near us to whom we could page 340 communicate the glad tidings of peace. Very considerable disappointment but hope to be with them tomorrow. Assembled our little congregation and held service. The moschettoes, &c., numerous, so numerous had but little prospect of sleeping until I determined to fit up a canopy with a spare sheet. When I lay down, I was soon covered with these tormenting insects buzzing around tho I was perfectly secure.

Monday, 4. Fine calm morning. We were a good deal hindered by the tide being so far out, as the boats were high and dry. We did not move off till 7 o'clock. The breeze fair which soon carried us on to Pakihi, the small island pinched by the N.Z. Company. We landed on a fine steep beach and had breakfast, but were obliged to fish for it. We afterward passed on to Wairoa, a river abreast of this island on the main. We went up two or three miles but could not see any native until our return, tho fires were burning in several directions. As we were returning a young man showed himself fully prepared for action with his gun and cartouch box. Having satisfied himself who we were, he came forward. He invited us to the settlement which was some distance up the river, but we could not go as the tide was low. On our return we consulted as to the best movements to make, when it was determined to wait here for the Karere until Thursday morning, and then proceed without her up to the head of the Thames sh'd she not have arrived. The evening was cold, but by the aid of good fires we made ourselves very comfortable.

Tuesday, 5. Had some rain in the night. In the afternoon we crossed to a large island in order to give the boys opportunity to dig firn root as our stock of provision is getting low and no appearance of the Karere. We ascended one of the hills from which we had a commanding view. The Island on which we were was large and abundance of ground for many families; the rocks were covered with oysters and pipis on the mud banks, which run out for a long distance, and the sea full of fish of all kinds. It was melancholy to look around; all was perfect stillness, except here and there a bird, no bustle of civil life. No vessels, boats or canoes moving on either hand over the surface of these waters which spread like magnificent rivers among the numerous islands. The hills in the rear are clothed with timber without rendering service to any. Traces of former Towns and settlements were visible as we came along and where'er we turned, but all were either destroyed, taken captive or fled.

Wednesday, 6. Very fine. Wind continues westerly, and we doing nothing waiting for the Karere. It had been better that she had page 341 not been connected with our expedition than to be subject to this inconvenience, as we are expending our provision without the prospect of replenishing our stock. The boys emp'd fishing and digging firn root. All in readiness at sunset for a move at daylight.

Thursday, 7. At break of day all in motion; struck our tents and proceeded on our voyage, having left a note for Wm. Lewington suspended to a stick with directions to follow us. The morng. was extremely fine, and sea smooth; a light air from the Westd. We came to a beautiful point of land which ran far into the sea and had some conversation with a small party who wished us to land and take some refreshment, but we were necessitated to proceed on. They brought however a basket of stinking corn55 which had been soaking in water for some weeks. This to them is a great treat tho the stench is unbearable to us. We passed on a little further and put into a small bay to breakfast. The natives here were relatives to Puhi and Ngaiwi, youths who had been with us some time; they sat down and had a long cry. Having concluded breakfast we continued our course with the sea breeze which had now set in. We met a canoe with a number of natives who had come to meet us; they saluted us with their muskets, and we proceeded together some distance, but landed at a small settlement in order to make some examination as to quality and general character of the country, as it had been proposed to establish the new settlement on part of this. It was so thickly wooded that we could not see far before us, but generally light timber; the soil appeared good; in the rear were hills covered with timber. We walked on to the top of the bank towards the sea about a mile, but soon got off the good land, and passed over an entire bed of pudding-stones from 10 to 50 Ib. weight. We found our walking very uncomfortable and again entered our boats, and continued on for about 2 miles, the hills coming down close to the water for some distance, when the land again improved, the hills retiring nearly 2 miles back. As this was the spot where it had been considered the houses should stand, we landed. Messrs. Brown, Fairburn and Morgan entered the wood. My attention was occupied in speaking to the natives, about 40 in number. I felt glad at the opportunity. Numbers soon gathered around and we had an interesting meeting. The few patches of land here which had been cleared seemed very rich, but it did not continue far to the Southd. We now passed on to Wakatiwai; our road lay along the bank of stones, which continued all our way, which made our walk heavy and cut our feet. We arr'd at the Pa page 342 about 4 o'clock, where we saw our old friend Patuone, Kupenga, &c., &c., and a good number of men women and children. All flocked round to gaze upon us and our baggage, which the boys in our absence had brought out of the boats and put in a heap before them to our great annoyance. After some trouble we obtained some dinner of which we stood much in need. Before sunset we assembled about 130 natives with whom we held service. In the eveng. Patuone presented two pigs. He expressed great concern at not having any children, as he had a young wife and wished to consult me if I had not any medicine or wine of some peculiar kind which might be beneficial. The Europeans had large families but they had none. The poor young woman was sitting by his side, looking with much earnestness for some profound information upon this important subject. It certainly is a mystery to them how we become so numerous and they so few; they tell us we are like the cattle and shall soon cover the land; we never die as they do, but multiply exceedingly. I told him their great wickedness and abominations were the cause of all their distresses—they were corrupt in all their ideas and ways.

Friday, 8. Appearance of rain, but cleared off by 10 o'clock. Went to see the Country round the Pa. All the low land exceedingly good, but to no extent. At noon we took the boat and pulled to the land we had looked at yesterday, where it was considered the houses would stand. We walked directly through the wood and found it very stony for some distance. The low land did not exceed a quarter of a mile, when we came to rising ground, covered with Kaikatoa—very ordinary. We continued to the Southd. in a parallel direction to the line of coast, and then struck through the bush to the sea, but were much surprised to find that the whole of the low land here was one continued bed of round stones with scarcely any perceptible soil. This fact added to several other objections appear to close our examination in this neighbourhood. On our return were much relieved by the sight of the Karere standing toward this place. She anchored at sunset and delivered letters from our wives and children and from many of our Natives, for ourselves and boys. This was an interesting particular for the people of the place, as they were thus enabled to evidence the nature and value of written characters, by the testimony of these their countrymen. Our boys seemed to look for and read over their letters with as much pleasure as we did ours, to the delight of all around. They repeated them aloud to the admiration of their auditors, who were struck with wonder at hearing as they described it a book speak; for though page 343 they expect that a European can perform any extraordinary thing, yet they cannot understand how that a New Zealand youth can possess the same power. Our communications were gratifying; all were well; praised be the name of the Lord. At dusk had eveng. prayers. Mr. Fairburn addressed the party.

Saturday, 9. Fine calm morng. Mr. Lewington breakfasted with us and gave us the news from Paihia. Dr. and Mrs. Ross had come with him to Mahurangi. Our friends here, Kupenga and Herua,56 appear jealous of our moving elsewhere. At low water, after much difficulty, we took our departure; the boys and the natives of the place wishing us to remain. The sea breeze had set in and soon carried us across. The Karere passed over the flats well and we all arr'd at Kopu by 3. The natives here gave us the usual welcome, firing guns, &c. I met several who had seen me in the Bay of Islands. We were immediately surrounded and while the boys were putting the boats and baggage in order, I sat down and had a long conversation with our friends. We contrived to get dinner before sunset, after which we had eveng. prayers and gave a few words of address to these poor people. They told us had observed the Ra Tapu, but that was all they knew as there was no one to instruct them. The Country here is singularly beautiful; on the left are gigantic hills, the most varied of any I have yet seen in this Island, well covered with timber. The opposite side of the river is perfectly level, and an extent of wood beyond the reach of the eye. Horeta57 soon made his appearance, a man of Noble appearance. Retired to rest very weary.

Sunday, 10. Fine morng. The Natives congregated around our tents at sunrise. After breakfast assembled all for service; Mr. Fairburn addressed them. It was our intention to have pulled up to Turua to have seen the natives there, but the tide was so late and the banks of the river so muddy we could not accomplish it. A number of natives sitting about all day. Toward sunset held evening service with the people of the place. I spoke to them upon the new birth; it was doubtless as new and strange to them as it was eighteen hundred years ago to Nicodemus; they were attentive. While assembled Parekeawiowio arrived, a man of renown. I have for a long time been desirous to see him. He has borne a notorious bad character, as a sly, murderous fellow; he is now blind. We had a good deal of conversation with him, but he was wild as a Hyena, page 344 and seemed desirous of returning to the woods. He spoke with greater rapidity than anyone I ever heard. Many inquiries through the day as to the time when the Mission would be established here. Much jealousy expressed. The natives were very kind. Our attention was called to the cruel acts of the Ngapuhi at Te Totara58, &c., &c., tho it appears that till within these 25 years the Ngapuhi used to be driven before these people.

Monday, 11. Fine. Packed up the baggage and sent the boats on board the Karere. Walked with the old man Horeta to see some of his plantations. The land over which we passed was perfectly level and far more extensive than we had anticipated. Our walk was really superb in some places; as we passed between the trees it had quite the character of a shrubbery. We continued till we came to a small river which runs up amongst the hills. The scenery was here very fine; the hills at the back run very high and irregular, covered with timber; gave a fine finish to the landscape. We here took leave of our good friend Horeta and returned by Te Totara. a Pa which had been taken by the Ngapuhi about 13 years since, before guns were introduced among these people. The Ngapuhi had been sitting near the Pa several days and receiving presents and holding friendly intercourse; and having obtained their confidence, they rose upon them and killed a very great number and took all whom they could seize as slaves. The most horrible cruelties were practised and many Chiefs were cast alive into their ovens. Some of the Posts of their fences are still standing, and from the extent of the ground we passed over constituting the side of the Pa, there must have been a considerable number of people. Human bones lay scattered up and down, and the spot was pointed out where their relatives had been killed and eaten.

We arrived on board the Karere by 1 o'clock and prepared for our journey to Waikato. We left at 3 and were soon carried up by the tide to Turua where we landed, but no natives here. We examined the land in the neighbourhood but found it low and swampy, the wood extending all along the right without a break. Continued our course and overtook a canoe; learnt from them that the people were up a small river at their cultivations. We followed them and soon found ourselves at an interesting settlement. The Chief came forward to welcome us with “Hareru mai poe” (How do you do, my boy). They expressed great pleasure when they learnt who we page 345 were. We much admired this spot as the land lay high, was of good quality and of considerable extent. We walked immediately to see their plantations, as the sun was now low. We were particularly pleased with the place and people, a long train of whom accompanied us. From our landing to the foot of the hills which were covered with timber is about a mile and a half, with a fine stream of water winding through the valley. The natives made many enquiries when anyone was coming to be with them, as they were people who attended to our Karakia. After we had taken our eveng. repast, we assembled all, about 150 or 200, to eveng. service; it was a pleasing sight. They were confined for room in front owing to a plantation of corn, and were consequently obliged to extend to the right and left. We had several fires in front of our tents which with some torches held by those in the distance, gave considerable effect to the scene. We commenced as usual by singing a hymn, but what was our surprise when we heard our whole congregation join, and correctly sing with us; and in the prayers also the responses were given by all as the voice of one man. We had not heard the like and could scarce believe our ears. It was very cheering to us, and we believed that the Lord had now led us to the spot where His Altar should be erected. I addressed them and found them very attentive. Many enquiries were made for books and slates. Slates we had none, but concluded to give one of our new books to Tuma.59 We retired to rest about 11, tired tho highly gratified by the day's proceedings, and thankful to the Lord. We found three boys here from the Mission who had lived in our families for some time, who had acted as teachers. Thus we see the work of the Lord prevail.

Tuesday, 12. Fine. Our natives slept around, and after morning prayers with these people, we took leave about 7 o'clock and pulled up the river with the flood tide. The scenery was beautiful. The land was perfectly level on each side of the river; on the right the wood continued and stretched along to the S.E. On the left, the hills were our boundary at a short distance with woods here and there. We did not remain at Te Kari Pa, as the people were all dispersed at their plantations. The river here narrowed with the trees hanging over the bank on each side. We landed about noon at a place where was a small party clearing ground, as the tide was making strong against us; the people were uninteresting. At 4 we again entered our boats and pulled on generally in S.E. direction. page 346 A little before sunset we landed for the night on the left bank, a fine, clear spot; an extensive tract of level ground here presented itself to view. We pitched our tents and had dinner between 8 and 9 o'clock. Fried eels, plum pudding and coffee. Various accounts of our road which lies before us; by some we have more days journey to accomplish now to our desired goal than when we set out. Fires very comfortable this evening.

Wednesday, 13. Fine. Slept soundly. Took breakfast before moving, to allow time for the tide to flow. We arr'd at Rau Pa by 9 o'clock. No one here, nor any fences up to indicate a Fortress. Our pull magnificent. Trees of various kinds spreading their branches over the river and occasionally the Kowai was very conspicuous whose tender boughs hung elegantly over the stream like the weeping willow gave a beautiful variety very different from anything I have seen to the Northd. The creeping plants of which there are vast varieties were here in full bloom. The land on either side of the same character as yesterday. Several places on the banks cleared for cultivation, and small parties of natives. A pleasing circumstance, as we see thereby that they are beginning to live in greater security. We arrived at Wanake by 10.15; a party of the Wakatohe. We landed for a few minutes but were afraid to remain owing to the reported length of our journey. At 11 we landed to dine and rest the lads who had been pulling hard all the morning, and against the current, and we had now arrived beyond the influence of the tide. At 2 came into a clear country. No trees on either side. In about an hour we again entered a wood and continued on to Tirau. We landed for a short time, but few natives present, as they were all at a distance. Our guide was very solicitous that we should remain here, but after much persuasion we again moved on up the winding stream, sometimes steering West, and again S.E. We landed for the night at 4.30 as the boys said it was going to rain.

Thursday, 14. Fine. Left our quarters at 6, and at 7.30 landed at Te Ruakoawa, our course sometimes N.E., S.E., South. We here secured the boats and concealed the paddles, &c., &c., and prepared for our march. Took breakfast and left at 9.30. The day was the hottest we have experienced for a long time; not a cloud, nor a breeze. Our attention was called to the ascending of a column at no great distance from us, which we at first concluded to be smoke, but was discovered to be the ashes of firn carried up by a whirlwind; it appeared very remarkable, for there was not a breath of air near us. There were two other columns at some distance. We halted at 2 o'clock for dinner at the edge of a wood, much page 347 overcome with the heat, but thankful for the retreat; it was refreshing. Our guide here left us to proceed on to Waharoa,60 by which we inferred that the distance was not so very great. He went forward to apprize him of our approach. Four strangers arr'd who informed us that the old man was near at hand, and pointed out a wood where he resided. We were well refreshed by 4, and at dusk turned aside to go down to the bank of the river for the night. We here stumbled upon four Europeans and a few of their natives; they were civil. We soon pitched our tents, lit up some fires, took a good wash, and had supper. The natives had prayers this evening by themselves, and while singing the hymn, the Europeans, who were near us in a raupo house, and who rank amongst the New Zealand merchants, struck up their vocal powers, and gave us the well known ballad, Old King Cole was a merry old soul And a merry old soul was he, &c., &c.

The land over which we came today was perfectly level with a few swamps; our course S.S.E.; a chain of high irregular hills close on the left, under which the river winds its way. Several places pointed out where battles had been fought. Great men had fallen and murderous scenes taken place.

Friday, 15. Did not move until late understanding that the place we were going to was only short distance. We passed through many swamps; the last was very deep, but I was carried comfortably over by the aid of two poles, tho the bearers frequently sank in the mud up to the chest. We entered a wood, and soon found ourselves at the cultivation of the old man Waharoa, who was sitting in state in the midst of his nobles. We were here welcomed graciously and potatoes and a pig soon handed for us. After taking some refreshment we all passed on to Matamata,61 the Pa. We here pitched our tents in a clear spot; a good assemblage watching our movements with much interest. In the eveng. worship held here for the first time, to the one true and only God. Mr. Fairburn addressed them.

Saturday, 16. Rain commenced in the night; lay comfortably till morng. when I found a serious leak over my bed. The old man appeared early at the tent door. I had a long conversation with him. About 10 the weather cleared up; took a short turn to see page 348 where we were. The land very good, and cultivation extensive. The natives related many sad accounts of attacks having been made upon them by the people of the Thames and Ngapuhi, particularly at the time when the expedition went against Tauranga; a party made a sudden attack upon this place under the idea that there were but few men here; they ret'd however without effecting much mischief. In the afternoon sent a blanket to Waharoa as a present in return for his attention to us. Many natives around all the afternoon. Before sunset assembled all to prayer; very attentive. I spoke to them for a short time and particularly told them to remember that tomorrow would be the Ra Tapu; they expressed much pleasure, and spoke for a Missionary to abide with them. We obtained a good deal of information as to the situation of this people.

Sunday, 17. Fine morng. The natives soon gathered round. We endeavoured to assemble the people in a large new house which was not quite finished, but this was objected to, as it was tapud yet, and the women must not enter; the men might do so. This was sufficient for us to wave the question. We therefore congregated together beneath the trees in an adjoining wood, and held our service; all very attentive. Our old friend Waharoa appeared much interested and asked many significant questions, and at last enquired what they were to do without a Missionary to teach them. This man has been a great warrior and it is highly gratifying to see him thus as a little child making enquiries. Our congregation formed a pleasing picture; it was composed of all ages, and many were perched upon the branches and stumps of trees. In the eveng. again assembled for prayer. I addressed them. The old man was again foremost in his enquiries. We were all highly delighted with him; he was desirous that we should remain and he would conduct us to the various places of Waikato, but we cannot remain, our time is expended. The leading men spoke of the necessity of seeing those of Natemaru, that they might not be tutu, vexatious, towards them, as heretofore, and gave an invitation to any of the chiefs of Ngapuhi to come that a good understanding might be established, and all fighting cease. They pleaded hard for a Missionary. I trust the establishing a station in the Thames and in Waikato will be attended with great beneficial effects. May the Lord hear our prayers and crown our feeble efforts with success.

Waharoa is a venerable grey bearded man, bold, determined in his undertakings, and possessed of much natural good sense. Our conversation continued till dusk.

Monday, 18. Fine. At 5.30 all on the move homewards. The page 349 old man accompanied us three miles on our road through the first swamp; it was a dirty place; with difficulty we crossed. The old man very particular in his last injunction to return to him and bring with us some of the Chiefs of Natemaru and Ngapuhi. He was very kind, and gave us 2 small pigs and 2 baskets of potatoes tho there is scarcely a basket to be obtained, as all are planted. We arr'd at a wood where we dined, in 4 hours from breakfast, and at 5 we brought up on the edge of a wood, our boys appearing tired. Our distance today 18 miles, through several swamps and some little wood. Our boys commenced immediately to kill and clean one of the pigs, and to pitch our tents. We were soon in snug quarters, and passed an agreeable evening. The night air cool, fires beneficial.

Tuesday, 19. Passed a refreshing night. At 5.20 were on the move toward the boats, and after two hours' walk, and occly. through some short swamps, we arr'd at the boats, thankful to find all safe. Our distance from Matamata computed at 25 miles. After a good wash in the river, of which we all stood much in need, took breakfast and proceeded down the stream, and by 6 o'clock we entered the creek leading to Te Puriri.62 Our distance on the river, as near as we could determine, must have been 40 miles. Our movements here rec'd considerable check as the tide was out and not room for the boats. We with great difficulty effected a landing by laying down a quantity of firn tops on the mud. Took supper and lay down till high water and then moved up the river.

Wednesday, 20. Fine. Natives around at first peep of day, wishing to hear the news. After breakfast, previous to our entering on any arrangement with the Natives of the place, we held a council as to the most desirous place of all we had seen in the Thames upon which to form the proposed station, when it was concluded that none has presented itself equal to the one we now are at. We accordingly took a survey of the ground wishing to give the Natives some idea as to the portion required. We walked to the wood in the rear and signified our wishes. There did not appear any objection, and with the wood there is level land in abundance fit for any purpose with fresh water streams running in various directions. Orders were given for the erection of three houses. Assembled the natives in the eveng., and spoke to them as usual. This place tho deficient in some points yet possesses many important advantages; it is central, and will stand between these parties as a restorer of page 350 wounded feelings which have long existed between these people, even the tribes of this River, who have but one common enemy, the Nateawa, Waikato, and Ngapuhi.

Thursday, 21. Much rain through the night, which cleared off at daylight. The people in general consultation as to the erection of the houses; some of the old women very vociferous in their harangue. At high water took leave of these people, with many expressions of regard on their part, and many desires on ours that they might be blessed with every spiritual blessing. In two hours arr'd on board the Karere laying off Kopu63; all well. We immediately commenced our preparations for departure in the morng. should the weather permit, which however did not look very promising. Mr. Fairburn and I remained on board to put everything in order. Messrs. Brown and Morgan took up their abode on shore.

Friday, 22. Rough night. Rose at daylight, and found the little vessel dancing in good stile, laying across the tide. No moving out today; wind directly against us and strong. We shifted our quarters to the shore, a quiet exchange. Rain commenced. Not many natives in the Pa. A long discussion upon the murder which took place here a few months since. Determined therefore not to take anyone with us from hence, tho several applied to return with us.

Saturday, 23. Much wind and rain through the night. No appearance of moving. Some few natives in the course of the day uncivil in their behaviour and importunate for payment for wood and water required by us and the little vessel. In the eveng. several strangers, Porua64, &c., &c. Had long conversation with them upon their sad and wretched state. They replied they were very well before the Europeans came, and brought muskets to Ngapuhi; and the god of the Europeans, “Warake"65, had carried off great numbers in sickness. They acknowledged however that the news we had now brought them was good and they hoped all would attend. It is a lamentable truth that wherever we find Europeans void of religious feeling to be established, the natives are far worse, their manners more insolent, more corrupt, than those who are more remote. Many natives sitting round till late, deeply grounded in the superstition of Makutu, &c., &c.

Sunday, 24. Fine. Wind more modt. Horeta came this morning. Messrs. Brown, Fairburn and Morgan went to a settlement about page 351 8 miles on the coast to the Northd. and some of our natives to Puriri. While at service our old friend Urumihia came in her canoe. She was very gracious and continued with us all day. Our congregation small. In the afternoon called on the young man residing here as Flax agent.66 Several youths at work fencing on his premises. Weather more promising for a departure in the morning.

Monday, 25. Our hopes of moving vanish by a strong breeze from N.N.W. Weather very warm. Our friend Horeta took his departure for his plantations.

Tuesday, 26. Heavy gale through the night with rain. At daylight ceased, and at 9 more promising; proposed to make the attempt to cross to Wakatiwai. Went to the Karere and having put our provision in order pulled out at the latter part of the ebb, and after 5 hours struggle with the wind and tide and two hours sailing we landed near Warekaua to dinner. We met here a number of men women and children. They enquired the news from the river and Waikato. We gave them a few words upon eternal things, and took our departure at 9, wishing to avail ourselves of the breeze, now fair. We called at a place where Herua was residing and left word for him to join us in the morning. We could not land owing to the stones on the beach.

Wednesday, 27. A most lovely night; the moon shone bright. It was after midnight when we landed at Pakihi the nearest Island. We soon kindled good fires, pitched our tents, and after a Cup of Coffee retired to rest. Herua with a large party arr'd before 8 o'clock and brought the two boys left behind. They were much disappointed when told that the Mission would be established amongst another tribe. At noon landed on west end of Waiheke wind having shifted to N.W., by which our hopes of reaching home this week are all blighted. After refreshing the boys and ourselves, we again put off at 3.30 for Motu tapu; flood tide. Several dangerous rocks were with difficulty avoided. As we passed along we found ourselves suddenly in a race and the sea boiling in a frightful manner. We felt thankful the distance was not great and we soon pulled clear. The boys were a little alarmed and extolled the merits of the boat in being able to accomplish such wonders as had she been a canoe we must have been upset. We landed on Motu tapu in a lovely retired sheltered spot, where the clematis and convolvulus and other creeping plants hung beautifully around. On the opposite side of the small channel to where we landed was Rangitoto. While the boys were arranging the tents and our supper, we page 352 crossed over to make some examination of this strange place of which we had heard much, as the natives described it as being impossible to walk there owing to the wounds inflicted on the feet by the rocks, and indeed no wonder, for the character of the place was as totally different from any land around us as was possible to imagine. The island is one pile of lava in blocks, and masses of various sizes, in all shapes and descriptions, which have been torn asunder at some subsequent age. Some resembled dross from a furnace; the small points and corners of which were so sharp, that it is almost impossible for a native foot to escape. Walking upon the edge of oyster shells must be a trifle to this. At sunset appearance of a Gale from the Northd.; prepared accordingly. Our distance today about 18 miles; from home 150. Anxious to hear from thence.

Thursday, 28. Quiet and refreshing rest. A Gale at North; the summit of Rangitoto enveloped in clouds. Walked across the narrow channel which was dry to examine more particularly this curious place. Notwithstanding the stones lay in huge masses with frequent openings and fissures, the depth of which could not be ascertained, yet bushes and shrubs appear to cover the whole island. I was enabled to obtain some good specimens, the best I ever saw and as fresh as tho but just set. In many places it lay like the foaming sea, and many large flakes like the feathered wave when driven by a strong wind. I had now more leisure to view and contemplate this wonder of the Great Maker of all. In all parts of New Zealand are volcanic remains but none like this which retains such strong evidence of the liquid state of this matter. In the afternoon heavy rain; our fires were very necessary and comfortable.

Friday, 29. This morng. wind shifted to S.W. but too strong to venture across to Wangaparaua. Went over to Rangitoto to explore, and certainly these wonders of the Almighty as here displayed must strike the beholder with awe. We walked about a mile toward the mount over broken lava which required our utmost circumspection lest we shd. fall into some abyss below. We were much assisted by the bushes in our progress over these huge masses. We at length arr'd at a clear open space, many acres, which appeared like newly broken ground; it was free from moss or vegetation of any kind except in a few small patches where were some plants as tho left by design. I was much struck with this variation from the general disorder around. In the afternoon the weather was more moderate; prepared for a move at high water, as we concluded the wind would die away in the evening. At 9, left this place; but little wind. Crossed comfortably by midnight to Wangaparaoa.

Saturday, 30. Fine night. At 3 entered Mahurangi; discovered page 353 it with difficulty; lit fires, and lay down to take some rest. At 7 proceeded to Mr. G. D. Brown. We did not long remain here. At 2 arrived at Omaha. Wind south. No Karere here. Took a hurried dinner and continued our course toward home. We entered Wangamata at dusk. The breakers were running in an ugly way at the mouth of the river, but the flood tide soon carried us in when we took possession of our old quarters and enlivened the scene by good fires plentifully supplied with wood. Night cold. We felt thankful we were thus far on our way; 59 miles since 9 last eveng.

Sunday, 1 December. Fine. All weary. Held comfortable service with our boys. Saw Karere some distance in the offing, standing to the Northd.; wind N.E. Fearful of another detention. May the Lord forbid it. At sunset clouds moving fast from the Eastd.

Monday, 2. Fine night. At 2 all in motion preparing for departure. Pulled out of this ugly place at low water. The breakers extending across the river but passed out well. Continued our course with a little wind to Tutukaka where we arr'd by 11 o'clock to breakfast. We here remained 3 hours to rest the boys who had been pulling all the morning. In the afternoon again proceeded on our way; little wind but considerable swell. At sunset landed on a quiet beach, boys too tired to continue. No wind; threatened for rain.

Tuesday, 3. Fine. At 2 all on the move and in good spirits, in the expectation of being home in a few hours. Breeze south, which carried us by 8 o'clock round Cape Brett, and into smooth water. As the Karere hove in sight we waited for her, and landed on one of the Islands in Paroa Bay to breakfast, and put our persons a little to rights previous to returning home, as we were in our travelling garbs, which were rough enough. We all sailed on together with a sea breeze, and by noon were greeted by our families and friends, whom we found in health and peace after an absence of exactly six weeks.

Bless the Lord O my soul and all that is within me bless his holy name. Bless the Lord O my soul and forget not all his benefits.

Wednesday, 4. Felt exceedingly weary from the effects of our late voyage. Occupied in talking over the wonders of the South.

Thursday, 5. Much as yesterday.

Friday, 6. A special meeting here respecting the settlement in the Thames.

Saturday, 7. The children took leave with their parents for the vacation.

Sunday, 8. After service walked to Waitangi, but few persons there as a large party had left for the fishing spot.

page 354

Monday, 9. Left early for Waimate. Encountered Kamura and party at Kaipatiki, who had great objection to make to our passing as they were putting a new fishing net together.67 Two little boys in the boat were stript in consequence. With some difficulty recovered the things taken. A very hot ride; found all well.

Tuesday, 10. Very hot. Rode to Taiamai. Poor Temoranga importunate to commence operations. Rec'd notice of the arrival of the Fortitude, which had been taken up for the purpose of taking goods and passengers for the Thames.

Wednesday, 11. Ret'd home. A weary ride; weather extremely hot.

Thursday, Friday & Saturday, 12, 13, 14. Every body occupied in shipping the frame of Mr. Fairburn's house, bricks, &c., &c. Went over to Kororarika; saw Titore.

Sunday, 15. Very hot. Went up the Kauakaua. A pleasant assembly. The schools were held in succession afterwards, Males and Females, and with as much order as at the settlement. Called at Otuihu on my way home, a large assembly of natives. Pomare and his party, old Hihi and many others. The old man endeavoured to enter into a disputation respecting the Nakahi,68 a new doctrine which has sprung recently amongst them in opposition to our instruction. The old man appears to be in the gaul of bitterness and in the bond of iniquity. Numbers of English Sailors landed and rolled into the grog shops here. Held service in the eveng. with the natives.

Monday, 16. Fine. Every one at work all day taking off boards &c., &c., to the Fortitude. Went up to Cap. Clendon's. Mr. Yate arrived in the eveng. from the Waimate. Mr. and Mrs. Preece from the Kerikeri.

Tuesday, 17. Hot weather. Karere not arr'd with Mr. Preece's baggage. Sent three boats to tow her down. Numbers of natives in the settlement. Hindered on every side.

Wednesday, 18. Hot weather. Karere made her appearance. Every symptom of a gale from N.N.E.

Thursday, 19. Wind from the sea. Our voyagers did not move before 1 p.m., when they took their departure. Messrs. Fairburn and Wilson left in the boat to coast it down to the Thames to meet the Fortitude there.

Friday, 20. Wind N.E. In the afternoon Mr. Fairburn and Mr. page 355 Wilson returned in consequence of his having been taken ill in the night; they did not proceed beyond Paroa.

Saturday, 21. Mr. Chapman returned from Te Puna after an absence of a few days, by way of recreation from his scholastic duties. My boys at fencing.

Sunday, 22. Hot weather. Several Europeans at service.

Monday, 23. Sent over five boys to Mr. Busby's new house to commence plastering.

Tuesday, 24. Mr. Fairburn took his departure for the Thames in better health, and finer weather. Mr. Polack, one of the Kororareka merchants, called to offer a situation on his ground for the erection of a Chapel there. This circumstance tho pleasing in itself, needs to be acted upon with caution.

Wednesday, 25. Christmas Day. Service in morng.; some few of the Europeans residing in the bay in attendance. Nothing indicative of the season. Weather extremely hot.

Saturday, 28. Fine. Emp'd in preparation for our voyage to Wangaroa. Several calls. Tupe from Wangaroa arr'd.

Sunday, 29. Cloudy. After service went to Kororareka. Saw Titore and had an agreeable conversation with him. He consented to go with us to Wangaroa in the morng.

Monday, 30. At 2 a.m. the boys up and we were soon on our way to Kororarika. Called for Titore, and proceeded on to Pt. Pocock. Landed at Waihihi and took breakfast. All sleepy, as but little rest. Found a boat here with four English men. Breeze sprung up against us, and the boys particularly lazy. Obliged to land till breeze should moderate. At sunset proceeded across the bay; landed in a small quiet bay at 11 o'clock; lay down on the beach intending to proceed at daybreak.

Tuesday, 31. Innumerable flees; literally devoured; not a sound spot from head to feet. Had these animals been somewhat larger how fearful might have been the consequences. Waited with patience for the morng. when we might remove from this place. At 9 entered the harbour of Wangaroa, landed to breakfast and refresh, which we stood much in need of. Towards noon pulled up to the Buffalo.69 Were received with great politeness. Mr. Baker had left two hours. Took up our quarters on board, as it was especially on account of this Ship we had undertaken the voyage.

1 Te Rou, one of the chiefs from whom Busby bought land at Whangarei, and at this time living in the Bay of Islands. [Ramsden, Busby, p324.]

2 Titore landed at Kororareka and began discussions on a new expedition.

3 Lake Omapere.

4 Papahia, a leading chief of Te Rarawa tribe, who lived at Orongotea, Hokianga. He signed the Treaty of Waitangi as “Chief of the Hokianga tribes”. Wi Tana, Tangata Kotahi and Te Tai, who also signed the Treaty, were his sons. When his elder brother, Te Huhu, died at Waimaka, he composed a lament in his memory. [A. T. Ngata, Nga Moteatea, vol. I, p5.]

5 Dr. Ross, an elderly medical practitioner who settled in the Bay of Islands and built a house at Waitangi. His widow sold the property to Captain W. C. Kingstone, who in turn sold it to Busby in 1838. [Ramsden, Busby, p198.]

6 Tamata Waka Nene.

7 Kekeao.

8 The Taeopa, the cutter belonging to Pi, mentioned several times in the Journal when recording Titore's first expedition to Tauranga in 1832.

9 Titore was accompanied by a party of the Rarawa tribe from Mangonui, Kaitaia, &c., under the leadership of Te Panakareao. [Smith, Wars, p450.]

10 Driven out in retaliation for the taua of Tirarau and Pukerangi to the Waikato in the previous year. [Smith, Wars, p452; Kelly, Tainui, p399.]

11 Parekeawiowio, a renowned chief of the Thames, by this time an old man.

12 The result of the slaughter by Mango and Kakaha.

13 Hamu, wife of Te Koki, and a chieftainess of rank, was a strong personality. She became a devout Christian and was given at her baptism the name of Ana. After Heke's war she went to live at Paihia.

14 Te Tumu, a pa two miles to the West of Maketu, was held by the Ngai-te-Rangi of Tauranga under Tupaea and Kiharoa. Maketu was held by the Arawa confederation of tribes of Rotorua, but this confederation was divided by quarrels so that the Ngati-Whakaue of Rotorua under Korokai assisted Ngapuhi, and the Ngati-Rangiwewehi of Ngongotaha were assisting Ngai-te-Rangi. [Correcting Smith, Wars, p451.]

15 Korokai, a renowned chief of the Ngati-Whakaue, Rotorua.

16 The entry of 2 March calls Te Tumu “the pa of Ngati-Awa", that of 3 March “the pa of Ngati-Maru”. The latter was a slip of the pen. The journal always calls the Maoris of Tauranga by the tribal name of Ngati-Awa; but they were Ngai-te-Rangi and outside the Ngati-Awa boundary.

17 The raid on Cloudy Bay. [Smith, Wars, p453.]

18 Wharepapa, a Ngapuhi chief of repute, one of Hongi's warriors.

19 Tupaea, a paramount chief of the Ngai-te-Rangi. The son of Te Waru, he had alliances with the Waikato and Ngati-Awa.

20 The Kaituna River.

21 Te Amohau, a principal chief of the Ngati-Whakaue, Rotorua. He died in Rotorua in 1889. [Smith, Wars, p454n.]

22 David Scott, a trader with headquarters in Tauranga from the early 'thirties.

23 Te Haramiti, a noted old tohunga of Matauri, who led the expedition with Mango and Kakaha in 1831, and was killed at Motiti Island.

24 Te Rohu, a Ngati-Tamatera chief of the Thames, whose pa was up the Waihou River somewhere near present-day Paeroa. He had joined the Rarawa. [Smith, Wars, p457; W.W., Journal, 25–6 December 1833.]

25 Or tuatara [Sphenodon punctatus], a small prosaurian reptile, lizard-like in form, notable for its possession of the nuclei of third and fourth eyes. Peculiar to New Zealand, it has been called “a living fossil”.

26 Rauroha, a famous and leading chief of the Ngati-Paoa tribe of Tamaki. When in 1821 Hongi overwhelmed the Mauinaina [or Mokoia] pa, Te Rauroha escaped to the Waikato, but was again involved when Hongi attacked Te Totara pa at the Thames. Wilson says that here his daughter, Urumihia, was taken captive and Te Rauroha was killed [Te Waharoa, pp6–8]. There is no doubt, however, that Te Rauroha again escaped. There is evidence of his being involved in incidents of much later dates. [See entry for 26 October 1833; Smith, Wars, pp195–6, 261–2, 308, 372ff, 457; Kelly, Tainui, pp350–5, 368–9.]

27 Kupenga, a leading chief of Ngati-Paoa, originally of Tamaki, but, after Hongi's disastrous victories, he settled at Whakatiwai. Patuone, brother of Waka Nene, married Kupenga's sister, and was at Mahurangi with Kupenga, despite Percy Smith's opinion to the contrary. [Smith, Wars, p457.]

28 John Alexander Wilson, like Henry Williams, served in the Royal Navy. He retired in 1832 to become a lay missionary in the C.M.S., and arrived in the Bay of Islands in the schooner Byron. In December 1833, he went with Preece to the new station at Puriri, where Fairburn and Morgan followed later. In 1836 he went with Wade to Te Papa, Tauranga. He was ordained deacon in 1852. His book, Missionary Life and Work in New Zealand, edited by his son, was published in 1889.

29 Samuel Stephenson, a trader, who in 1832 opened a trading station at Okiato in partnership with Captain James R. Clendon.

30 Toretore Island.

31 Captain Black brought in the Elizabeth a party of Maoris from the East Cape, and landed them defenceless among their enemies in the Bay of Islands. Only the intervention of the missionaries, and the fact that one of the local chiefs was related to them, saved them from death. They, with others who were slaves rescued by their masters, were returned under charge of the Rev. William Williams in the schooner Fortitude. [W.W., Christianity among the New Zealanders, pp162, 172ff.]

32 J. S. Polack, a Jew whose fame is due to his two books on New Zealand. Landing in Hokianga about 1831, he later settled in Kororareka as a general merchant. Busby considered him to be a mischievous influence, and Polack attacked Busby by supplying the Sydney press with libellous information reflecting on Busby's capacity. In 1838 he gave evidence in London in favour of colonies in New Zealand. Later he lived in Auckland, but left in 1849 for the Californian diggings, and nothing more was heard of him.

33 James Busby was an Englishman who had occupied various government positions in New South Wales. He was appointed by the British Government as Resident to New Zealand and arrived in May 1833. He was welcomed by both missionaries and chiefs, but the refusal to supply him with military or constabulary forces greatly undermined his influence. Historical judgment upon him has, for the most part, been unduly harsh. He had not the makings of a great man, but he was given little opportunity by his superiors to do anything at all, so that blame for failure rests upon them more than upon him. He actively assisted in the establishing of Captain Hobson as Consul and Lieutenant-Governor, despite his personal disappointment at being overlooked for the post. He became a permanent settler in New Zealand, and for many years took a prominent place in public affairs. He died in 1871. [See Ramsden, Busby of Waitangi.]

34 John Morgan arrived to join the missionaries at the Bay of Islands in May 1833. With Henry Williams and the Rev. A. N. Brown he went to visit Te Waharoa, and joined Preece in establishing the mission station at Puriri. In 1835 he settled at Mangapouri, but was withdrawn at the end of the year. He was appointed to Otawhao in 1841, and for twenty years fulfilled a useful task as missionary and instructor to the Waipa River tribes.

35 The Rev. John Hobbs records in his journal that at Paihia on 22 May 1833, “I had the pleasure of being introduced to brother Orton whom the Committee have deputed to visit New Zealand, and to Brother and Sister Whiteley who have come to succeed Mrs. Hobbs and myself at Hokianga, and to Brother and Sister Tucker who are on their way to Tongataboo”.

36 Mr Orton was a commissioner of the Wesleyan Church sent from Sydney to investigate the Rev. W. White's indifferent accounting of the mission books and his relations with his brother missionaries.

37 Kuri, a chief of the Rarawa tribe, and a close relative to Te Morenga.

38 A long-boat belonging to the settlers, King, Mair and Powditch, which was seized because Pomare claimed that King had taken quantities of timber without payment. [Ramsden, Busby of Waitangi, pp70–1.]

39 Te Reinga, the abode of the dead. It was the Maori belief that the dead travelled to Te Reinga [lit., “the leaping place”] at the northernmost tip of the North Island, and there jumped over the cliff into the place of the dead.

40 Whiro was a malevolent god, the personification of evil, darkness and death.

41 This was not the first use of ploughs in New Zealand. The Rev. John Butler's journal records on 3 May 1820: “The agricultural plough was for the first time put in the land of New Zealand at Kideekidee, and I felt much pleasure in holding it after a team of six bullocks brought down by the Dromedary”.

42 This book was seen through the press at Sydney by the Rev. William Yate. It contained Maori translations of Genesis 1–8; the Gospels of St Matthew and St John; the Acts of the Apostles; the Epistle to the Romans; and the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Yate also at the same time supervised the publication of two other books of translation. One of these contained adaptations of various orders of service, four catechisms and twenty-seven hymns; the other contained four catechisms. [H. W. Williams, Bibliography of Printed Maori, pp iii, iv; Carleton, Life of Archdeacon Williams, vol I, p138, and Appendix D, p10.]

44 Te Akaipikia, an aged chief of rank, who became a Christian and went to live at Paihia. [W.W., Christianity among the New Zealanders, pp87, 106.]

45 Matangi, a famous chief of Waima, Hokianga.

46 The reputed author of the phrase describing Busby as “a man-o-war without guns”, which he used in giving evidence to the Lords' Committee of 1838. He lived in New Zealand for about fifteen months

47 Kekeao, chief of Ahuahu.

48 “Messrs. Brown, Fairburn, Morgan and my brother sailed for the Thames in two boats”. [W.W., Journal, 22 October 1833.]

49 Kawau Island.

50 Mokoia, now known as Panmure.

51 Te Hinaki was a chief of the Ngati-Paoa, whose pa was at Mokoia, Tamaki. In 1820 Marsden secured a peace between him and his enemies at Hauraki, and in 1821 Te Hinaki went to visit Marsden at Parramatta. He returned as a fellow passenger with Hongi Hika, who entertained him at the Bay of Islands. In November 1821, Hongi besieged and captured Mokoia with great slaughter, and shot Te Hinaki.

52 Tamaki River.

53 Marsden explored Manakau harbour in 1820. [Marsden L. & J., p314ff.]

54 The beach on Motutapu Island.

55 Kanga pirau. This is still a Maori method of preparing corn.

56 Herua, a leading chief of Whakatiwai.

57 Te Horeta te Taniwha, of the Ngati-Whanaunga, was principal chief of Coromandel and Thames, and claimed to have met Captain Cook. He was nicknamed “Old Hooknose” by the pakeha, to whom he was consistently friendly.

58 Te Totara pa, the great stronghold of the Ngati-Maru, which was taken by Hongi and his warriors in 1821.

59 Tuma, a chief of Kopu or Puriri.

60 Te Waharoa, the famous Ngati-Haua chief, whose pa was at Matamata. A skilful general and a man of great courage, he was one of the great chiefs of his day. His prowess as a warrior won him great victories, and made him feared by both those whom he conquered and those with whom he fought in the Waikato, Thames, Bay of Plenty and Rotorua areas. [See Wilson, Te Waharoa. This book is not always accurate in details.]

61 The site of this pa is now known as Waharoa. It is just north of the Waharoa railway station.

62 Te Puriri was chosen as the site for the mission station because of its central position. The Hauraki [Thames] Maoris were of four main tribes: Ngati-Maru, Ngati-Paoa, Ngati-Whanaunga and Ngati-Tamatera.

63 Kopu, the second Thames mission station.

64 Porua, a chief of Kopu.

65 This is probably a corruption of the term ariki as applied to Jesus Christ. A common phrase on missionary lips was “to tatou Ariki” [our Lord], and the final u of tatou was often carried over by European speakers of Maori as an initial w to ariki. This mispronunciation is still often heard.

66 Probably Chapman. [Smith, Wars, p447.]

67 This was a serious breach of tapu law.

68 Nakahi is a Maori transliteration of the Hebrew word for “serpent” in Genesis 3. See note on Papahurihia, page 378.

69 H.M.S. Buffalo. Some writers have confused this ship with two others of the same name. The vessel mentioned here was a teak-built ship of 589 tons launched at Calcutta in 1813 and named Hindustani. Purchased by the Navy in 1813 and renamed Buffalo, she was used as a naval storeship and was frequently in New Zealand waters. In 1840 she was wrecked in Mercury Bay on what is now known as Buffalo Beach.