Armageddon or Calvary: The Conscientious Objectors of New Zealand and "The Process of Their Conversion"
XVIII.—prisoners of conscience
XVIII.—prisoners of conscience.
The wholesale jailing of Conscientious Objectors proceeded apace, both before and after the deportations, until at last between 300 and 400 New Zealand men—many of them with wives and very young children depending upon them—were held under lock and key. It is safe to say that far more men were required to look after the C.O.'s than the imprisoned men numbered. So that the prisoning of the C.O.'s was not only wrong from a moral viewpoint, but essentially stupid from a military viewpoint.
To the following sentences must be added, in a great many cases, additional sentences of 28 days in the detention barracks. Some of the men served two such sentences before reaching the civil prison; and the list herewith is only of sentences served in civil prisons. Thus the sentences inflicted on the New Zealand C.O.'s for refusing military service ranged from one to four, a large number of the victims serving three sentences. This list is by no means a complete record of the men whose possession of a conscience won for them a prison experience. It does not include the Maori Objectors, whose names I have not been able to obtain; nor yet does it page 105include all the Europeans. Still, it is formidable enough to furnish a warning for all New Zealanders as to the menace of an intensified and intolerant militarism:—
Eighty-Four Days and Deported.—Socialist Objectors: F. Adin, W. Little, Mark Briggs, H. Patton. Religious Objectors: Garth C. Ballantyne (also Socialist), A. E. Sanderson, L. Penwright, T. P. Harland, D. R. Gray. Pacifist Objectors: A. McC. L. Baxter, Alex. Baxter, J. Baxter. Irish Objectors: D. Maguire, L. J. Kirwan.
Eighty-Four Days.—W. Staff.
Six Months—Egerton Gill (Religious).
Nine Months.—G. A. Jennings, J. Gribble.
Ten Months.—J. M. Hankers, W. J. Wild.
Eleven Months.—Hugh Baxter (Pacifist), H. Bland (Religious), P. Cody (Irish), P. Dixon (Religious), J. T. Hogan (Religious), R. Hopkins, C. Goodson (Socialist), H. R. Urquhart (Religious), F. Gunn (Socialist), F. Lamb (Religious and Socialist), R. P. Knape (Socialist), T. Kells (Religious), H. Smith (Religious), Wall, Walsh, F. Rogerson (Socialist). Mr. Urquhart also served a sentence of one year under the War Regulations (Sedition) Act.
One Year.—C. E. Warden (Religious and Socialist), Arthur Borrows (Socialist), W. Hall, W. H. Jones (Socialist), A. Gunn (Socialist), P. Gunn (Socialist), Noel Goldsbury (Religious), Roy Brady (Socialist), G. Wears Samms (Socialist), James H. Roberts (Socialist), Prendergast, Richard Goode.
One Year and Eleven Months.—P. R. Clayton (Religious), F. G. Herbert, A. Parsons, W. Maddern, D. H. Day, J. Stubberfields, James Walker (Religious), S. E. Salter (Religious), A. J. Oston (Socialist), S. R. Doming, F. Sumner. Two Years.—Socialist Objectors: H. Bryant, Norman Bell (Christian), Frank Robinson, D. T. Sullivan, G. E. Quartermain, Frank Carroll, Charles Fox, W. E. Robinson, F. J. Gavin, J. S. McDonald, D. Gunn, Robt. J. Gould, G. Carian, A. Bradley, W. G. Gray, E. R. Williams, W. Yeomans, Henry Moffatt, H. Wilson, J. Saunders, R. Tarbutt, J. F. Patterson, A. Sherrock, H. Campbell, Wm. Worrall, P. C. Webb, M.P., T. Logan, Alex. May, J. K. Worrall, L. J. Woods, C. Robertson, Howard Hopkins, Barroclough, A. Fraser, A. Harding, W. White, J. Calpin, A. Fraser, H. R. Gray, W. H. Haydon, M. Kelson, F. A. Macrae, Jeffreys. Religious Objectors: R. Arthur, I. S. Aichen, B. A. Allerly (also Socialist), A. J. Aitken, J. A. Brailsford, T. A. Bentley, H. Blundell (also Socialist), F. Pallesen, L. Robinson, A. Blanchard, J. B. Goulding, A. Beaton, W. B. Donovan, W. S. Badger, S. Woods, J. W. Duke, Robin Page, R. J. Halkett, R. A. Stone, J. R. Olley, Jasper O'Brien, P. C. Patton, A. Page, Pettybridge, S. A. Palmer, H. Rankin, S. Strong, R. A. J. Palmer, R. J. Irvine, W. J. Young, J. McCormack, C. H. McCormack, J. Rogers, T. B. Struthers, H. J. Levett, A. C. McIntyre, H. Wright, A. H. Varnham, George E. Billings, J. S. Billings, J. W. Clapham, Ed. H. Dowsett, D. M. Banks (also page 106Socialist), L. Batten, H. G. Blanchard, Doherty, Ferguson, D. G. Furlong, W. R. C. Greenhill, J. Gray, R. Gray, T. H. Ireton, J. G. Holtham, A. E. Johns, McFarlane, A. O. Isaacson, Percy Gill. Irish Objectors: T. Brosnan, M. O'Connor, J. O'Brien (also Socialist), D. Mangan, W. Malley, G. H. Lloyd, Metcalfe, G. T. Drum, Daniel Brosnan, J. J. Lloyd, Jordan, D. F. Murphy, T. M. Driscoll (also Socialist). Pacifist Objectors: S. Fountain, F. F. Fowler, L. Foley. Other Objectors: J. S. Morris, Daglish, Reed, Doody, Hodgkins, Ash, Pottinger, Gunter, Murraine, Hannan, Christian, Sheehan, Schultz, Appleby, Cole, A. J. Morris, Collins, Ryan, Shirer, Dickson, Anderson, Ross, Conway, Higgins, Hill, Lynch, McLean, Wickes, Stapleton, Skinner, Clark, Holroyd, Cunningham, Cook.
Two Sentences (in civil prison).—Donald Baxter (Pacifist), 11 months, 2 years; K. H. Broughton (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; H. R. Blade (Religious), 11 months, 6 months; J. H. Bennett (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; A. R. Patten (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; P. Dodge (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; J. J. Hussey (Socialist), 84 days, 2 years: Davidson (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; H. Adin (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; D. A. Jones (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; H. King (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; H. C. Kelbey (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; F. Money (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; J. McKenzie (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; R. A. Macrae (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; D. M. N. McCormick (Religious), 11 months. 2 years; W. T. Virtue (Socialist). 11 months, 2 years; S. C. Watchorn (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; C. A. Watson (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; P. G. Wright (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; W. R. Robertson (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; C. W. Read (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; S. B. Read (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; R. Slockdill (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; C. C. Steele (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; J. Pickering (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; Jones (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; R. H. Phillips (Religious), 11 months, 2 years; J. Moye (Socialist), 11 months, 2 years; John Roberts (Socialist). 1 year, 6 months; A. K. Henderson (Pacifist), 9 months, 2 years; Tom Kelly (Irish and Socialist), 4 months, 2 years; L. Cody (Irish), 11 months, 2 years
Three Sentences (in civil prison).—D. Williams (Irish and Socialist), 84 days, 11 months, 2 years; J. Cody (Irish), 84 days, 11 months, 2 years; Rhys Morrish (Religious Objector), 84 days, 11 months, 2 years.
Others (sentences not ascertained).—Armstrong, J. Brindle, Church, Craig, Gear, F. T. Johnstone, Scott, Morris, Selby, Newman, Mills, Spaulding, Bowline, Blackburn, H. Goldsbury, Holtham, Hasse, Hawker, McManus, McKee, Hedley, H. Ellman, Drummond, Deane, Granger, Brady, Bolton, Joyce, Jessop, Kells, Kelly, Marshall, Pearson, Plewes, Gankhurst, Thackeray, Vallance.