Title: Robley: Te Ropere, 1840—1930

Author: Timothy Walker

Publication details: University of Auckland, 1985, Auckland

Digital publication kindly authorised by: Timothy Walker

Part of: The Moko Texts Collection

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Robley: Te Ropere, 1840—1930


page 2


The chronological details given in the following pages are intended as a brief outline of Robley's whereabouts, activities and interests.

Information relating to the 1840–1890 period has been largely drawn from Mr Horace Fildes' excellent unpublished ‘biography’ of Robley (an edited version of Robley's autobiographical memoirs). [VUW Fildes 1507] Unless otherwise noted, all details are drawn from this source.

Subsequent to his retirement (in 1887) Robley remained in London for most of his life. Wherever possible, excerpts of his letters have been introduced to give an impression of the nature of his activities and concerns from the period between his retirement and his death in 1930.

Robley was an extremely energetic and active man, be it in his capacity as an artist, correspondent, collector, soldier, dilettante, friend of New Zealand etc. It has not been possible to introduce references to all of his endeavours; those with relevance to his development as an artist, and those relating to New Zealand have been given preference over the many anecdotal accounts of other activities and experiences.

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“A meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Gt. Britain & Ireland” (1896) ink sketch VUW Fildes NZ Portfolio/3

“A meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Gt. Britain & Ireland” (1896)
ink sketch
VUW Fildes NZ Portfolio/3

The following is inscribed (by Robley) on the reverse of this sketch:

“Robley lecturing on his Maori Heads … flags, banners from W. Africa … X heads of tattooed New Zealanders & one a child … skulls from Suffolk on table.”

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28 June Born at Funchal in the Madeira Islands. His mother, Augusta J. Robley, was a local resident and well known painter.1 His father, John Horatio Robley was a former officer of the British Indian Army.


The family removed to Southhampton, England. Horatio and his two sisters — Augusta and [Jane] — were taught by private tutor. In addition they received artistic instruction from their mother. Horatio's interests in boating and shooting were encouraged by his father.


May Robley purchased an Ensignship in the 68th Durham Light Infantry (£450)

June He reported to Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland, for initial training

November The eighteen year old Ensign departed Gravesend for India, where the 68th Regiment was based.


March Arriving at Madras, Robley proceeded to Rangoon, Burma, to join his Battallion. The British presence in Burma was that of a ‘pacifying’, occupying Force: their role was to protect trade access to the Bay of Bengal.


29 May Robley returned to Britain on sick leave. He visited his family and attended the Hythe School of Musketry in Kent.


Robley was made an Instructor of Musketry and purchased promotion to Lieutenant (£250). He returned to Rangoon.


Obtaining leave, Robley accompanied an American Mission Party into the Central States of Burma; the mountainous Karen and Shan areas.


Late in the year the 68th, awaiting a recall to England, received orders to proceed to New Zealand. Local Buddhist Priests, with whom page 4 Robley had become friendly, tattooed a red device on his arm to render him invulnerable to harm.

2 November Robley left Rangoon on board the S.S. Australian.

New Zealand

[NB: an abridged version of Robley's New Zealand memoirs, edited by Horace Fildes, is included as an appendix. This gives a detailed account of his experiences in the Country. (see p. 376)


8 January Robley arrived in Auckland.

As part of the British refusal to allow the Bay of Plenty Maori to retain control of their own land Robley was involved in the battles at Pukehinahina — the so-called “Gate Pa” — (29th April), and at Te Rangaranga (21st June). The Maori surrendered to Imperial troops at Te Papa on the 21st & 25th July.


Robley sought, and was granted, leave to join the party of Imperial and Te Arawa troops formed to pursue the “Hau hau” who had killed the Rev. C.S. Volkner at Opotiki on the 2nd March. He travelled as far south as Matata on this occasion.

The remainder of the year was passed in the Tauranga area. Robley spent much of his spare time among the local Maori at Otumoetai, Matapihi, Maungatapu and Maketu. During this time he became intimate with Harete Mauao of Matapihi. A child, born to Harete during 1865 or 1866, was named Hamiora Tu Ropere. Robley was the father.2


12th March Robley left New Zealand, on board the S.S. Percy.

28 June The 68th arrived at Spitshead, England. This was Robley's twenty-sixth birthday.


The 68th remained on home service; based, a different times at Crewe, Manchester and Fleetwood.


The Regiment was stationed at Youghal, in the Blackwater County of Ireland. During this time Robley's father died at Cork.

28 June (Robley's thirtieth birthday) By purchase (£100) Robley was placed in command of a small unattached company. He then exchanged, by further purchase (£800) to the 91st Argyll Highlanders; based at Stirling, Scotland.


September Robley, together with a detachment of men, was detailed to Fort George, Inverness. There they remained for eighteen months.

Robley's Burmese signature Alexander Turnbull Library MS 16/2

Robley's Burmese signature
Alexander Turnbull Library MS 16/2

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July Robley returned to Stirling, where he acted as principal Instructor in Musketry for the 91st and 72nd Regiments.


April with three Companies in his command, Robley was stationed at Enniskillen in Ireland.

He visited the United States later in the same year, returning to Enniskillen by December.


May The Regiment moved to Belfast on garrison duty.


Robley dislocated his knee during a regatta at Clyde. On medical advice he travelled to Italy for swimming therapy (in the warm Mediterranean).

In Rome he received a private audience with Pope Leo XIII.3


Robley was recalled to Stirling. The body of the 91st had removed to Capetown following the Zulu ‘uprising’ at Tugela, Natal.


28 January Robley was promoted to Major.

Later in the year he was sent to command 91st Companies at St Louis, Mauritius.


May The Mauritius Battallion was relieved, having been plagued with illness since the previous December. The men, including Robley, joined the 91st Headquarters Division at Capetown.

1st July Robley was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. The 91st officially merged with the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders; they were thereafter known as the 91st, Princess Louise's Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.4

A smallpox epidemic in Capetown saw the Regiment transferred to nearby Wynberg.


Robley took leave of the Regiment and visited his sister in Dresden, Germany.

8 November He rejoined the 91st at Capetown, being placed in command by Lieutenant Colonel A.C. Bruce C.B. who proceeded to Britain on leave.


27 June Robley assumed full command of the Regiment upon the retirement of Lieut. Col. Bruce.

With the help of Mr P.J. Aubin, Editor of the “Cape Times”, Robley wrote and published a History of the 91st.5

1 December The Headquarters Division of the Regiment, including Robley, transferred to Durban.


The 91st was based at Etshowe in the Natal. They occupied several posts gained in the preceding fighting with the Zulu.


March The Regiment withdrew to Pietermaritz, the danger of a Zulu ‘rebellion’ having passed.

9 September Robley travelled to England on leave, returning to Colombo, Ceylon, the following year.

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June After a four year command of the Regiment Robley received orders to return to England.

September Robley retired from the Army with the rank of Major General.


There is little information regarding Robley's activities during this period. It is likely that he resided in London with his extensive collection of items acquired during his many years of foreign service.6


Robley purchased a Mokamokai (preserved Maori Head) from a London Phrenologist, Mr O'Dell. (This appears to have been the first Mokamokai to enter his Collection.)7


Planning to publish a book on Maori tattooing (initally to reproduce his 1860's sketches of the Maori) Robley undertook an extensive tour of British and European Collections; studying — and wherever possible, purchasing — Mokamokai and other Maori items.


13 February Robley was made an honorary member of the 5th New York Regiment (Duryee Zouaves)8

JuneMoko; or Maori Tattooing” was published — at Robley's own expense — by Chapman & Hall Ltd, London.

November Robley delivered a speech, and exhibited six Mokamokai, at the Royal Anthropological Institute. His Collection of Heads numbered fourteen at this time.9


November The Collection of Mokamokai was placed on public exhibition at London's Guildhall. The Exhibition ran for twelve months.


November The Mokamokai were transferred to the Liverpool Museum where they were again exhibited to the public.


June The Exhibition was closed, the Mokamokai returned to Robley's London residence.

16 August “I must try and come out on a trip, I am freer nowadays.” Robley-Mair 10

At some time during 1899 Robley placed his collection of Mokamokai — then numbering twenty-one — on offer to the New Zealand Government. 11


July “Time marches on, at the latest sale in London most of the Maori things went to Germany … [The collecting of Maori items] has been much neglected by our National Museum [The Dominion Museum, Wellington].” Robley 12

Robley had acquired thirty Mokamokai by this time, a fact recorded in the letter quoted above.13

26 August “The NZ Govt. have never answered my offer of my tattooed heads.” Robley-Hocken 14

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Liverpool Daily Post 17 January, 1899

Liverpool Daily Post 17 January, 1899

page 7
Lieutenant-Colonel Horatio Gordon Robley, Officer-in-Command of the 91st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, reviewing the troops; Colombo, Ceylon, 1886.Victoria University of Wellington Library Fildes 1507/2

Lieutenant-Colonel Horatio Gordon Robley, Officer-in-Command of the 91st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, reviewing the troops; Colombo, Ceylon, 1886.
Victoria University of Wellington Library Fildes 1507/2

page 8


On hearing that Robley was still alive, Hori Ngatai, a Ngaiterangi kaumatua who had fought the Imperial soldiers at Pukehinahina and Te Rangaranga in 1864, sent greetings and a pounamu ear ornament (whakakai) to Robley; “in remembrance of the old days.” 15

13 JulyJames Carroll received a letter from the New Zealand High Commission in London; “further in respect to General Robley's Collection of Maori Curios offered by him for sale.” The letter was referred to Augustus Hamilton, Director of the Dominion Museum on the 25th January, 1905; then to the Cabinet in August of the same year for consideration. On the 24th August it was referred back to Hamilton, and finally to Carroll on the 2nd May, 1906. The offer was refused, largely at Carroll's behest. 16

8 November “I am so occupied with Natives in town that I have no time for any pleasure for myself 17 … I did get some treasures lately, a large bowl in the shape of a huge lizard, a box, a prow, a bailer.” Robley-Helen Tate-Stoate. 18

During 1901 and 1902 Robley hosted a number of parties of Maori soldiers, in London for the Coronation of King Edward VII (1902).


28 August “At Alexandra Palace yesterday the Maori troopers said goodbye to their numerous English friends … The preliminaries included a soldiers' “at home” at which Major-General Robley … presided as host …” Daily Express 19


7 April “… it is too late when a curio is in a catalogue. I wish you [would] send me a [postcard] when something comes under you that is A.1. & then I [would] train down at once or wire …” Robley-Oldman 20

In 1904–1905 Dr T.M. Hocken of Dunedin acquired Robley's own copy of “Moko; or Maori Tattooing”, together with many additional notes and illustrations. The material was intended to be used to publish a second edition of Robley's book, but the project was incomplete when Hocken died in 1910. 21


7 OctoberAugustus Hamilton, Director of the Dominion Museum, purchased seventy watercolours, from Robley for the Museum. The purchase price was £50. 22

Captain T.E. Donne, C.M.G., visited Robley at his residence-cum-Museum in St Albans Lane, Regent St, London. Robley possessed, at the time, thirty-eight Mokamokai. The Major-General voiced his concern that the James Barry oil painting of the Rev. Thomas Kendall with the Maori Chiefs Hongi and Waikato — then in the Collection of the Church Missionary Society, London — should be acquired by a New Zealand Museum. Donne managed to have the painting presented to the New Zealand Government in 1906. 23


5 January “I reported to Mr Hamilton re the double worked tiki, at £50 asking it is [very] rare to find & such good work” Robley-Donne 24

2 April “I see my collection will be missed by Govt. — However the Heads have been a rare hobby for me — … I am considering over that Exhibition in Christchurch — .I may send something or wish I [could] go rounds [of New Zealand] again.” Robley-Mair 25

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British Australian 20 August, 1902

British Australian 20 August, 1902

page 9

27 November” … I begin to fear that the Govt is too wholly indifferent [re purchase of Mokamokai] …” Hocken-Robley 26


Robley sold thirty five Mokamokai to Mr Morris K. Jessup of the American Museum of Natural History for £1,500. Included in the purchase price were a number of other Maori items; two pieces of tattooed thigh skin, a carved wooded feeding funnel and a carved wooden pakuru (a musical instrument used to accompany chanting during the tattooing operation). 27

May “… how well [Goldie] renders his portraits but he doesn't seem to get hold of fully tatued men … Is the circle on the upper cheek [kowhiri] derived from the “manaia”? or only to ornament the round surface there — I believe this is very uncommon in greenstone, but met in paraoa …” Robley-Best 28


Robley continued to offer New Zealand those (five) Mokamokai that he had withheld from the AMNH sale.

6 August “… What an interest France takes in NZ things — my heads are wanted there but I keep them for possible return to their own Country where some marks &&& might be known by old men existing.” Robley-Alexander Turnbull 29

3 September “I have written Mr Hamilton — offering 2 or 4 heads or all with long time for any payments suitable — I can't do more …” Robley-Hocken 30

The above letter also finalises arrangements for Hocken's publication of the second edition of “Moko; or Maori Tattooing”.: “I went to the publishers [Chapman & Hall Ltd] & can secure rights to publish Moko and the illustration blocks & give over my 12 years additional information — some very rare, and some more correct drawing if you like to secure for £25 …”


Easter “re my existing heads — I fancy I can get rid of them this season here. I begin to know N. Zealand Govt authorities after all the [deliberations] [Seddon] & [Ward] were and are only paragraph hunters and nominees of small majorities.” Robley-Hocken 31

Robley again hosted contingents of Maori soldiers in London. On this occasion the men were representing New Zealand at the Coronation of King George V.


27 January “It is to be noticed that at the different sales, London, there is little or no Maori [work] to be seen … I hope the new Government regime will be more patriotic to the [Dominion Museum] and not starve it — For years the best NZ things have gone & scattered … I regret the NZ Govt did not let me get 1 medal for each … [Regiment] & Maoris [Regiments] that served — from 99th & 58th in [1846] to Hauhau campaign — such a collection (is just possible) to be historic & [should] have a place at the Capital …” Robley-Best 32


13 December “It is curious to me to meet Maori in London. When their people were fighting us well [before] the 70's.” Robley-Craig-Brown 33

Immediately before the First World War Robley lost a great deal of money when the Italian marble mine owned by Mr Miller, his brother-in-law, was “overthrown” by German financiers: “all I lent, went.” 34

page 10


Robley was asked to decorate a number of “cavaliers” with moko. The men were to accompany Miss H. Mackenzie — daughter of Mr Thomas MacKenzie, NZ High Commissioner — to the 1914 ‘Peace Ball’ (celebrating a century's peace between Britain and the USA): “[I] turned them out quite correct.” Robley 35

12 June Mr J. MacDonald, Acting Director of the Dominion Museum, purchased a further six watercolours from Robley for the Museum Collection. 36

21 July An exhibition of Robley watercolours opened at the Dominion Museum.


Pounamu; Notes on New Zealand Greenstone” was published by T.J.S. Guilford and Sons, London. Robley was aided in the book's preparation by Douglas McLean, Canon J.W. Stack and Elsdon Best. 37

7 JulyMr J.A. Thomson, Director of the Dominion Museum, agreed to purchase thirty drawings of Moko/Mokamokai from Robley. 38


Robley designed and painted life-scale reproduction facades of whare commissioned for a Reception for the New Zealand Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Joseph Ward, held at the Hotel Cecil, London, and for a NZ Military Hospital building in France 39

21 July “I often meet Maori troopers … in Town … I [would] like to see looted the Berlin and Dresden [Museums], so rich in old NZ Specimens.” Robley-Alexander Turnbull 40


Upset that Captain C. Maling, N.Z.C., a veteran of the New Zealand Wars, died in London without any notice from New Zealand Authorities, Robley approached the NZ Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. William Massey — then in London — to organise the funeral. After some discussion Robley managed to arrange a full military funeral service for Maling. 41

Robley designed and painted a large whare facade to stand on the New Zealand Stall at the Empire Exhibition at the Royal Albert Hall. 42


18 January “I have a wonderful [collection] of sketches and photos of rare old things … [which] I fancy are not known as types — some from Revd. Chapman & Volkner collections … There is a Head offered me now but I will not address Govt — yet it is in Al designs.” Robley-Best 43

Robley was visited in London by Horace Fildes, a Historian and Collector from Wellington. The two became friends and corresponded regularly in subsequent years. 44


26 MayGilbert Mair is hale and hearty, is a great friend of Jimmy Cowan's — they often tour the King Country together on horse back — visiting old pa sites & battlefields … When [I] mentioned to Elsdon Best a second edition of “Moko” he pricked up his ears — he was quite unaware that Dr Hocken had it in view …” Fildes-Robley 45

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14 July “I could get for a NZ museum one of the most perfect tattooed & preserved heads with paua in eyes & nose — it [would] be given me for £ 75 … [it is a] pity no one tries for it as a national asset … but I or the owner may go Reinga before any interest …” Robley-Taine 46

3 August “I have got much better lately, but when I am piano I do most drawing I think … I was calculating that very old Maori I saw [in 1860's] — may as infants [have] been [alive] in 1769 …” Robley-Fildes 47

The Dominion Museum purchased a carved putorino (flute) from Robley in 1921 48


25 August “It is too late to get a Maori school of carving — myths are not in knowledge — but replicas of old work could be faithfully copied.” Robley-Fildes 49

22 September Robley was elected a life member of the Tauranga Savage Club, a group of enthusiasts of Maori History led by Captain Gilbert Mair and Mr W. Corrgian. “We hope you will do us the honour of allowing your name to be enrolled as a Brother Savage of our Club.” Robley accepted the nomination, regarding it as “a honourable & pleasing affair of [his] life.” 50


On receiving a copy of James Cowan's “New Zealand Wars; Volume 1” Robley lent it to Mr Pemberton of the “Times” in order that a review notice should appear on the book. On receiving it back from Pemberton Robley made copies of the Stuart portrait of Riwhitete Pokai, included as a plate on page 45. [Cowan: 1922]

During 1923 and 1924 he was involved in carving and painting moko designs upon plaster casts taken from a life-mask in the British Museum. (Sir George Grey had presented the life-mask — of Taupue te Whanoa, Ngatiwhakauae, Te Arawa; collected by Grey in 1854 — to the Museum.)

“I … paid for 3 copies … after seeing “The Chieftain” in bronze [for the] Wembley [Exhibition, 1924] with wrong moko and taiaha — more natural casts should be sent to NZ … [would] be useful to a Dominion sculptor to see into … to paint oneself [in moko] like I did … is to discover that left side is more difficult to put pigment upon oneself …” Robley-Fildes 51

September Robley was visited by Mr J.C. Adams of Tauranga, a longtime correspondent, in London for the 1924 British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Stadium. 52

October Robley's often-damaged knee, the source of constant rheumatism, was again hurt in a collision with a motor vehicle. 53


16 January “the venerable soldier [Robley] is now … [83] years old and is “very tottery”. “It is astonishing … how he still produces his watercolours drawings so well.” These drawings of the veteran are now pretty well distributed over the world.” Free Lance 54

February Robley arranged for veterans of the NZ Wars — then patients at the Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea — to attend a luncheon in their honour at the NZ High Commission. In the event only one man (of the five living) was able to attend; Lieut. J. Donovan, Royal Artillery. 55

page 12

25 August In reply to a letter from Robley outlining continuing rheumatism in his knee, the Maori Priest J.W. Ratana wrote to the Major-General, exhorting him to “Trust in the Lord Jesus Christ … Believe in him and his power to heal …” Noting that he did not attend or interview Europeans personally, Ratana added that he would “also pray to the Lord” to grant Robley's requests. Robley later presented the letter to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum in London. 56

The British Empire Exhibition held at Wembley Stadium in 1924 featured the Mata-atua House (now in Otago Museum). Robley had become close friends with the two Maori in London overseeing its restoration, Major Dansey and H.R. Te Kiri (of Rotorua) 57

“Of course Dansey has had no experience whatever in such matters and I don't know who this native is whom the papers call Kiri. I only hope he is competent. You could keep any of them right in all matters of carving …” Mair-Robley 58

Robley also met members of Rudall Haywood's Cinema Company at Wembley, where they were filming the re-enactment of the Orakau battle before travelling to New Zealand to film “Rewi's Last Stand” in early 1925. Robley supplied the film crew with drawings of correct moko designs to be used, and decorated a number of the participants in the “Orakau Pageant” at the Exhibition. 59

Mr W.O. Oldman's Collection of Maori items was exhibited in the New Zealand display at Wembley: “many treasures should go back with all [the] visitors over this year.” Robley-Best 60


Robley was asked by Sir Godfrey Layden, K.C.M.G., to help in the selection of a collection of pictures of the indigenous races ‘of’ the British Empire, to be presented to the Royal Colonial Institute. 61

Nominated by J.C. Adams, and seconded by Elsdon Best, Robley was made a member of the Polynesian Society. 62

25 November The first part of Robley's article, “A History of the Maori Tiki” was published by the Kaitaia “Northlander”. In the article Robley discussed the possible sources of the hei tiki form, suggesting a similarity with Buddha figures.

2 December The second part of the article was published in the “Northlander”.

3 December “I [have] been very sad at [the] loss of a sister & was told to keep my mind occupied …” Robley-Adams 63


Mr H.W. Smythe, owner of a number of watercolours by Augustus Earle, arranged for their sale through Sothebys of London, on the 4th May, 1926. (Smythe had inherited the works from his father, Admiral W.H. Smythe, Earle's half brother.)

16 April “I went to Sothebys today [private] view [of Earle paintings] — came there [with] Sir James Allen and friend — all pictures are in a book … question is — will owner separate — and if so …, this is [private], is Govt offer sufficient — given in [private] office, I present … something may turn up to aid NZd …” Robley-Fildes 64

21 April “I see Earle, as Angas even, does not notice rewha & pukaru and other details in tattooing — carvings not quite understood — but good “patakas”, “whares”, &c.” Robley-Best 65

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11 October Robley's advice was sought by the New Zealand Government regarding the proposed purchase of a sketchbook containing thirty-two watercolours of early New Zealand by General Charles Gold. Robley inspected the works at the High Commission Offices and recommended that they be purchased. 66


8 November “I am working to give some pictures to a charity bazaar, but this winter seems to give me short hours for colours — Black & White, one can draw by evenings … How I drew in those [New Zealand] days … now everthing [sic] is photography … “Robley-Adams. 67


5 July “Now in London a Tiki fetches … £ 90 …, a Head … £75 … I put in age 89 on 28 June — so am quite a veteran …” Robley-Best 68


12 June “I had nice days at Tauranga [in 1860's] … Mair wrote me just before he went; the Maori thought a deal of my recording their ancestral art … as my knowledge was “priest-like and divine”. — I wish I [could] do a visit to Tauranga yet — I would like … Best Wishes with “karakia”.” Robley-Adams 69

29 October Robley died in a nursing home in Peckham Road, London. He was 90 years old. “He left no property, but a lot of debts.” 70

3 November The funeral was held at the Streatham Park Cemetery, London. Among the mourners at the ceremony were H.R.H. the Princess Louise (Duchess of Argyll), Colonel-in-Chief of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, represented by Major-General Sir Alexander Wilson, K.C.B.; Sir Thomas Wilford, K.C.M.G., K.C. (High Commissioner for New Zealand), represented by Mr J. Manhire; Miss Gwendol in Borghesi, niece; and Mrs Ettie A. Hornibrook who represented the Royal Empire Society. 71

page 14 page 15 page 16 page 17 page 18
“[Robley] dressed as a Maori, kneeling in ambuscade” (Hocken Library Collection) MI 488, opp. page x This photograph was taken at Ryde, England in 1866 — immediately subsequent to his return from New Zealand.

[Robley] dressed as a Maori, kneeling in ambuscade
(Hocken Library Collection) MI 488, opp. page x
This photograph was taken at Ryde, England in 1866 — immediately subsequent to his return from New Zealand.

1 Augusta Jane Penfold and her sister, Jane Wallis Penfold, were renowned for their paintings of the Madeira flora and fauna. Both women published examples of their drawings in books issued by Reeves Bros, London. [Fildes: 1921 p. 2]

2 Robley's relationship with Harete Mauao, and with his son, Hamiora Tu Ropere is further discussed in Chapter 1.

3 “At Rome … I [met] … a Scotch chamberlain at the Vatican who asked me if I had my uniform with me as His Holiness had never seen Highland dress. Upon telling him I had, a private audience was arranged …” [Robley-Fildes:n/d VUW Fildes 10/1]

4 Princess Louise was the daughter of Queen Victoria, and commander-in-Chief of the 91st Highlanders.

5 Lieut. Col. G.P. Wood, M.C., of the 91st Highlanders, has informed the author that the Robley-Aubin History is not known to the Regiment. [personal correspondence: 9 May, 1984]

6 On the return home from Colombo Robley was required to pay a “heavy duty on a collection of crocodile skins, elephants' feet, and other trophies …” [Fildes: 1921 p. 139]

7 There is a strong possibility that Robley had acquired a number of Mokamokai while in NZ in the 1860's. This Mokamokai (see page 154) was the first he purchased subsequent to his retirement. The details of his collecting of Mokamokai are discussed in Chapter 2.

8 Robley-Adams: n/d ATL MS16/9

9 Journal of the Anthropological Institute”; November, 1896

10 ATL qMS/1898–1922

11 Robley-Hocken:1900 Hocken Library MSI 488

12 Robley AIM MS256 R66

13 ibid

14 see note 11

15 NMNZ FA1599 (verso)

16 National Archives, Wellington. File 2130/Colonial Secretary's office. T.E. Donne informed Robley that Carroll was responsible for the decision. ATL MS1387/19.

17 This refers to the Maori soldiers in London for the Coronation of King Edward VII.

18 ATL MS1387/22 Miss Helen Tate-Stoate was a well-known Collector of Maori items.

19 Hocken Library, MI 488

20 ATL MS1387/22 W.O. Oldman was a dealer in, and later Collector of Maori items.

21 This material is in the Hocken Library, MI 488.

22 NMNZ Ethonology Dept. MS. These works from the body of the NMNZ Robley Collection.

23 ATL T.E. Donne Scrapbook 83–93/2 vol. 6 & ATL Jubilee Exhibition Catalogue: 1970 p. 10.

24 AIM MS256 R66. The hei tiki Robley refers to was available at a London sale.

25 ATL qMS/1898–1922 A drawing by Robley (see page 363) may have been the source of a design painted on the upright hull of a canoe at the 1911 Christchurch Exhibition. The gateway carved for the Exhibition's model village (now in the National Museum, Wellington) by Neke Kapua and his sons was based on Robley's watercolours of the carved waharoa from Maketu. (see pages 252256). [see Dominion Museum Bulletin/3, 1911 and Neich's essay in Arts and Artists of Oceania: 1983, edited by Mead and Kernot.]

26 Hocken Library, MI 488

27 personal correspondence; Mr P. Gifford, American Museum of Natural History, 11 June, 1984

28 Elsdon Best Scrapbook ATL qMS Vol. 3 p. 211

29 ATL MS 57/77

30 Hocken Library MSI 488

31 Hocken Library MI 488

32 ATL MS16/2

33 ATL MS16/4

34 Robley-Fildes: 1929 VUW Fildes 10/1

35 ibid n/d

36 NMNZ Ethnology MS. The Director, Mr J.A. Thomson, was in Fiji at the time.

37 Robley-Best: 1929 ATL MS16/2

38 NMNZ Ethnology MS

39 Robley-Turnbull: 1916 ATL MS57/77. The Army Hospital in France is most likely to have been the NZ Stationary Hospital at Amiens. [personal correspondence; Capt. G.J. Clayton, QEII Army Memorial Hospital: 17 July, 1984.]

40 ATL MS57/77

41 Robley-Best: 1929 ATL MS16/2 [see also Melvin: 1957 p. 14 & p. 19]

42 ATL MS16/6 (see page 87)

43 ibid For examples of these Albums see ‘Maori Sketches’, HBAGM Collection; and the T.E. Donne Scrapbook, ATL qMS

44 Robley's letters to Fildes, which included many miscellaneous items, are in the Victoria University of Wellington Collection.

45 ATL MS16/1

46 T.E.R. Hodgson Collection, Wellington

47 VUW Fildes/10a

48 NMNZ Specimen Schedule

49 VUW Fildes/10

50 ibid The Tauranga Savage Club's badge featured a reduced engraving of a Robley portrait of a tattooed Maori male.

51 1929 VUW Fildes 10/1. Two of these casts are in the National Museum Wellington — ME 3764 (ex: Mair Collection) and acc. 64/31 (ex: K.A. Webster Collection)

52 Many of Robley's letters to J.C. Adams remain; in the ATL Manuscript Collection (MS16/9) and in the Tauranga Archives Collection

53 Robley-Adams: 1924 ATL MS16/9

54 The letter quoted in this newsclipping was likely to have been sent by J.C. Adams (then in London) to Horace Fildes in Wellington.

55 VUW Fildes 10/1. The other four men, too infirm to attend, were: M. McMahon, 70th Regt; J. Hallard, 12th Regt; M. Lehair, 50th Regt and J. Pryke, 12th Regt.

56 A transcription of Ratana's letter is included in Robley's material held by the Victoria University of Wellington — VUW Fildes 10/1.

In his letter to Ratana, Robley had noted his friendship with Hori Ngatai and Hamiora Tu Ropere, as well as his offers of rum to the Maori wounded at Pukehinahina in 1864.

57 VUW Fildes 10 & 10/1. The House, now in the Otago Museum, had been exhibited ‘inside out’ at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition in London and, before that, at the Sydney Exhibition. The ‘inside out’ plan, conceived by Sir (then Mr) James Hector, was to enable a steady flow of people to view the carvings. [Mair-Robley: 1923 ATL MS1387/19]

58 ATL MS1387/19

59 Robley-Best: 1926 ATL MS16/9 (see also VUW Fildes 10/1) Robley also supplied a number of ‘imaginary scenes’ to the producers of Gustav Pauli's The Romance of Hinemoa which started filming 1925–26. [personal correspondence; NZ Film Archive, 4 March, 1985]

60 1924 ATL MS16/2

61 1925 ATL MS72/5a. The Royal Colonial Institute later became known as the Royal Imperial Society.

62 Journal of the Polynesian Society Vol XXXIV; 1925 p. 388

63 ATL MS16/9. This was probably Augusta Robley.

64 VUW Fildes 10/1. Sir James Allen was the NZ High Commissioner. (The 161 Earle watercolours were purchased by Mr W.J. Spencer who sold them to Mr Rex Nan Kivell shortly afterwards. The National Library of Australia purchased them in 1959. [Hackworth-Jones: 1980])

65 ATL MS16/2

66 VUW Fildes 10/1. Robley's advice was not heeded. The thirty-four works by Gold in the Alexander Turnbull Library were purchased from Christies in 1971.

67 ATL MS16/9

68 ATL MS16/2

69 ATL MS16/9. This letter is included in Chapter 3 (see page 78)

70 Fildes-Adams: 1931 ATL MS16/9

71 newsclipping; no source/date ATL Art Collection; E24A